Parasitism

WHAT IS PARASITISM. Definition of parasitism, Parasitism is a feeding relationship or association between two organisms, in which the parasite live in or on the body of the host, deriving benefit from and causes harm to it while the host loses in the process. the study of biology, chemistry and physics has brought a lot of discoveries in regards to things seen and unseen. the rare name parasitism is not common some part of the world like in Africa. what people has idea of in old times are just that someone is sick and need to be treated. so many means where deployed in order to cure the sickness. the missing links in most nations of the world in the lack of advanced technological equipment for the purpose of proper documenting of parasitism.

how does parasitism works?

this a one sided relationship affairs between two organisms of different species. in parasitism, the parasite lives either in inside or outside of the host from which it derives it’s nutrients for daily metabolic activities. some parasite live as endoparasite or ectoparasite. you can read my post on ecto-parasite or endo-parasite here

feeding mechanisms in holozoic organisms== Parasitism

In other words, parasitism is a close association between two organisms in which one, known as the PARASITE, lives on or in and feeds on the expense of the other known as the HOST. The parasite benefits from the association while the host suffers

Typical examples of parasitism are

MAN AND THE TAPEWORM AS AN EXAMPLE OF ENDO-PARASITISM

The tape worm is a parasite that lives in the small intestine of man, where it derives the benefits of a habitat, protection and food. The man who s the host suffers because he loses to the tape worm parts of the food he has eaten and digested

MISTLETOE AND FLOWERING PLAN

The mistletoe is a plant parasite that lives on other larger flowering plants. The mistletoe benefits because the host gives its support and raises it to a position from which it can receive sunlight. The parasite also derives water and mineral salts from the host while the host suffers harm by losing to the parasite part of the water and mineral salts that it has absorbed

FUNGAL PARASITES OF HOST PLANTS INCLUDE

  1. Ustilago on maize, Ustilago is the largest genus in the Ustilaginales, with approximately 300 species, and most species parasitize monocotyledonous hosts. Teliospores of Ustilago spp. typically germinate with a cylindrical, mostly four-celled basidium. Each basidial cell repeatedly buds off basidiospores (=sporidia), which produce the haploid yeast state.

  2. Puccinia on maize, wheat or barley.Puccinia is a genus of fungi. All species in this genus are obligate plant pathogens and are known as rusts. The genus contains about 4000 species.The genus name of Puccinia is in honour of Tommaso Puccini (died 1735), who was an Italian doctor and botanist who taught Anatomy at Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova in Florence

  3. Phytophthora palmivora on cocoa

  4. Phytophthora infestans on tomato/potato,

  5. Alternario on tomato

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  • ents causing illness belong to this category.
  • Commensalism: Association between two organisms in which one derives benefit from the other without causing it any harm. This intermediate category is not uniformly accepted. Often, upon detailed analysis, the relationship turns out to be either parasitic or symbiotic.
  • Symbiosis or mutualism: Both organisms benefit from the relationship. The type of relationship also depends on host factors. For example, bacteria normally inhabiting the bowel live in an apparent commensal or (by inhibiting potential pathogens) symbiotic relationship with humans. However, in cases of cirrhosis with consequent hepatic insufficiency, bacteria can become a dangerous source of ammonia that leads to hepatic encephalopathy. A commensal relationship can be transformed into a potentially harmful one.

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