types of Ectoparasite, damages caused by ectoparasite.

TYPES OF ECTOPARASITE

Ectoparasites include scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei), the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius), fleas, and lice, including the body louse (Pediculus humanis), pubic louse (Phthirius pubis), and head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis).Ectoparasites are often arthropods that attack the exterior surface of a host.

For example, the common tick is the carrier of the extracellular bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi responsible for Lyme disease. The bacteria are introduced into the host when the tick bites him/her to obtain a blood meal. Large numbers of basophils, eosinophils and mast cells accumulate at the bite site to repel both the attacking bacteria and the tick.
It is thought that when mast cell degranulation releases substances that increase vascular permeability, ticks have greater difficulty in locating host blood vessels.

VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST

40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. <ahref=”https: www.apsnet.org=”” edcenter=”” disandpath=”” fungalbasidio=”” pdlessons=”” pages=”” coffeerust.aspx”=””>COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON</ahref=”https:>

Some ectoparasites are countered by the same strategies effective against helminth worms. Anti=pathogen bound to the surface of basophils and mast cells is critical for host defense against such invaders.

For example, humans who lack adequate numbers of basophils and eosinophils develop scabies, a severe, itchy rash caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Much remains to be determined about the molecular details of immune responses to ectoparasites.

Ectoparasites include scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei), the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius), fleas, and lice, including the body louse (Pediculus humanis), pubic louse (Phthirius pubis), and head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis).

Their severity ranges from nuisance value to serious public health hazard. Head lice are common in schoolchildren worldwide and are mainly a distressing nuisance. The body louse serves as a vector for epidemic typhus, trench fever, and louse-borne relapsing fever. In disaster situations, disinfection and hygienic practices may be essential to prevent epidemic typhus. The flea plays an important role in the spread of the plague by transmitting the organism from rats to humans. Control of rats has reduced the flea population; however, during war and disasters, rat and flea populations may thrive. Scabies, which is caused by a mite, is common worldwide and transmitted from person to person==human contagious diseases. Th

e mite burrows under the skin and causes intense itching. All of these ectoparasites are preventable by proper hygiene and the treatment of cases. The spread of these diseases is rapid and therefore warrants immediate attention

Family Pediculidae
Parasites of primates, including humans; bodies fairly robust, not covered with dense spines; abdomen armed with pleural plates (paratergites) and with tergal and sternal plates in most species; with well-developed eyes, comprised of pigment granules and a lens; with legs approximately equal in length or with first pair slightly smaller. (Genera mentioned in text: Pediculus, Phthirus)

The ectoparasites most commonly found on nonhuman primates are lice and mites. These blood-sucking and biting arthropods are not host specific and will move from one warm-blooded animal to another. Both are known to serve as vectors of human rickettsial diseases such as epidemic typhus fever and scrub typhus. Although there is no documentation that such diseases have been transmitted from infected monkeys to humans, mites from nonhuman primates were thought to be responsible for dermatitis in human contacts, including pediculosis from spider monkeys (Ronald and Wagner, 1973) and sarcoptic mange from macaques (Smiley and O’Connor, 1980).

VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST

40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. <ahref=”https: www.apsnet.org=”” edcenter=”” disandpath=”” fungalbasidio=”” pdlessons=”” pages=”” coffeerust.aspx”=””>COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON</ahref=”https:>

The lung mite, Pneumonyssus simicola, causes pulmonary acariasis in monkeys and is very common iThis parasite is not thought to be zoonotic but is noteworthy because the small cystic lesions of this infestation, found throughout the lung parenchyma but particularly on the surface, are often numerous and may be confused with those caused by tuberculosis.

lists of ecto parasite

• ACARI
• VARROA DESTRUCTOR
• CYMOTHOA EXIGUA
• BED BUGS
• CULICIDAE (MOSQUITOES)
• CALYPTRA (VAMPIRE MOTHS)
• HIPPOBOSCOIDEA
• TSETSE FLY
• LIPOPTENA
• MELOPHAGUS OVINUS, (SHEEP KEDS) AND RELATIVES
• OESTRIDAE (BOT FLIES)
• HUMAN BOTFLY
• PHLEBOTOMINAE (SAND FLIES)
• PHTHIRAPTERA (LICE)
• BODY LOUSE
1. CRAB LOUSE
2. HEAD LOUSE
3. SIPHONAPTERA (FLEAS)
4. TABANIDAE (HORSE FLIES)
5. TANTULOCARIDA
6. TRIATOMINAE
7. PEA CRAB
8. SACCULINA
9. ANNELIDS
10. HIRUDINEA (SOME LEECHES)
11. MONOGENEANS
12. MONOGENEANS ARE FLATWORMS, GENERALLY ECTOPARASITES ON FISH.

13. CALYDISCOIDES EUZETI
14. LETHACOTYLE VERA
15. PROTOCOTYLE EUZETMAILLARDI
16. PSEUDORHABDOSYNOCHUS SPP.
17. MOLLUSKS
18. CANCELLARIA COOPERII
19. GLOCHIDIUM
20. PYRAMIDELLIDAE
21. CHORDATES
22. COOKIECUTTER SHARK
23. CANDIRU (VAMPIRE FISH OF BRAZIL, A FACULTATIVE PARASITE)
24. LAMPREYS
25. MALE DEEP SEA ANGLERS
26. FALSE CLEANERFISH
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ectoparasite

https://schoolworkhelper.net/parasitism-ectoparasites-endoparasites-symbionts-defenses/

Lice are wingless, meaning they can’t fly. ectoparasites. Ectoparasites are parasites that live on the outside of their host.

groups of ectoparasite

There are two main kinds of lice in the order Phlethiraptera. These are the biting lice, which are most often found on birds, and the sucking lice, which are mostly found on mammals.
Biting lice.  you can also read more about biting and chewing insect here

Biting lice (Mallophaga) are Ectoparasites of birds, and occasionally of mammals.
Their mouthparts are adapted for chewing=biting and chewing insects, and they munch away on skin fragments, skin secretions, feathers and hair.

Few species of lice do feed on host blood, especially from existing wounds.
Bird lice are highly host specific, which means that they stick to certain species of bird. This fact has made zoologists review the relationships and classification of some birds, because birds that share similar species of lice may be more closely related

Biting lice rarely have a detrimental effect on their hosts. However, in man-made situations, such as chicken farms, they can occur in large numbers. In those circumstances they can cause a lot of irritation to the farmed birds, causing them to scratch a lot. The birds might then get skin infections due to the sore skin.
Sucking lice
Sucking lice (Siphunculata) have long oval bodies, and their heads are smaller than those of biting lice. Their scientific name comes from the Latin word siphunculus

, which means little pipe or siphon.
Sucking lice have piercing mouthparts-holozoic feeding adaptation, which they use to suck the blood of their hosts, including man. They hang on to hair with a single large claw at the end of their strong legs. Lice that feed exclusively on blood do not get a well-balanced diet, and make up for this by having bacteria in their gut that provide the additional nutrients, well this process still remains a mystery to me to be honest

damages caused by ectoparasite infections

Nearly every mammal species can be infested by a sucking louse – even seals and walruses have them! These ‘marine lice’ all belong to the family Echinophthiriidae, and they can exist for long periods under by taking a layer of air down with them between their specially modified body hairs, or by breathing

air trapped in the host’s body hair.

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