Biotic factors that affects agricultural production simply means the living or biological factors that affect the production or practice of agriculture. Seven of the most important factors are listed here for you

The biotic factor like disease, insects and nematodes and abiotic factor like drough,  water logging, heat, could and frost have a negative impact on crop production I.e. the crop field decrease due to this factors.



i. These include bacteria, fungi, earthworm, rodents and termite.
ii. Some, like bacteria and fungi can cause diseases
iii. Some aid the aeration of soil, percolation and fertility

iv. Some, like the root nodule of plants can fix nutrients directly to plants and soil
v. Some open up wounds on plants or animals for other pathogen to enter
vi. Some reduce the quality or quantity of crops
vii. Some help in the decomposition of plant materials to form humus



i. These include birds, insects, rodents and some mammals
ii. The reduce the quality and yield of crops and animals
iii. The reduce the quality of animal yield
iv. Some are vectors or carriers of diseases

v. They reduce the income of the farmers
vi. The cost of their control increases the cost of production

Biotic factors such as pests, insects and diseases reduce the crop production. A pest causes damage to our crops by feeding. Weeds also reduce crop productivity by competing with the main crop for nutrients and light. Similarly, abiotic factors such as temperature, wind, rain etc. affect the net crop production.



I. they includes ticks, liver-flukes, tapeworm, dodder, mistletoe and lice
II. the transmit diseases
III. they reduce the quantity or yield of produce
IV. they also reduce quality of produce
V. they may cause death of plants or animals
VI. they reduce the production capacity of both plants and animals
VII. cost of control increases the cost of production
VIII. parasites may be external or internal i.e. endo-parasites or ecto-parasites



i. They may be diseases caused by virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoa etc.
ii. They cause reduction in yield of plant and animals
iii. They can cause death of either plant or animals
iv. The cost of control increases the cost of production
v. They cause reduction in farmers income



Competitive and complimentary nature among field crops when grown together
Competition between plants occurs when there is demand for nutrients, moisture and
sunlight particularly when they are in short supply or when plants are closely spaced
When different crops of cereals and legumes are grown together, mutual benefit results
in higher yield (synergistic effect)
i. Weeds compete with crops for space, water, nutrients and sunlight
ii. Some weed do harbor diseases and pests
iii. Weeds reduce the yield of crops
iv. Weeds cause poor growth of crops



i. These are birds, rodents and praying mantis. read animal pests of crop here
ii. Some of these predators are beneficial for agricultural production
iii. Some of these predators are used to control the spread of some harmful pests of crops and animals
iv. Some feed on farm animals, like a hawk feeding on chicks
Soil fauna like protozoa, nematode, snails, and insects help in organic matter
decomposition, while using organic matter for their living
Insects and nematodes cause damage to crop yield and considered as harmful
Honey bees and wasps help in cross pollination and increases yield and considered as
beneficial organisms
Burrowing earthworm facilitates aeration and drainage of the soil as ingestion of
organic and mineral matter by earthworm results in constant mixing of these materials
in the soils.



i. Human activities includes the influence of man on the production of plants and animals
ii. Man’s activities may lead to soil improvement
iii. There could be increase in yield if he practices crop rotation
iv. There could be increase in yield if he controls pests and diseases
v. There could be increase in yield if he weeds his farm properly
vi. Continuous cultivation, bush burning and inability to control erosion can lead to lower crop agricultural output

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