Proper ways to apply fertilizers

proper ways to apply fertilizers and manures. there are also different types of fertilizers. for fertilizers to be effective, then there are certain factors ways to improve it’s potency

proper ways to apply fertilizers and manures

PROPER WAYS USE FERTILIZERS

APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURES OR FERTILIZERS

Inorganic manures or fertilizers are chermical substances in of powder, granules or crystals which are added to the soil to provide nutrients that are deficient. Fertilizers are manufactured in the industry from rocks and other materials.

Types of fertilizers proper ways to apply fertilizers

There are two types of fertilizers:

(i) Straight or single or simple fertilizers: These are fertili/ers that contain one of the major plant nutrients in the form plants can use.

They contain one primary element such as nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus in their composition. These are called the key nutrients.

Examples are sulphate of ammonia, urea, ammonia nitrate, sodium nitrate with nitrogen as the key nutrient.

Also, single super phosphate, concentrated super phosphate and calcium metaphosphate all contain phosphorus as their key element. Others are muriate of potash (potassium (1) chloride), crude potash and suiphate-of-potash-alliiavmg -potassium-asthe-ir-primary element.

(ii) Mixed compound fertilizers:

These are fertilizers that contain two or more primary nutrient elements pilli filler materials. The nutrients are in ratios and the ratio refers to the proportion of the major nutrients to one another. Examples are N.P.K: 15:15:15, 20:20:20, N.P.K: Mg. 12: 12:17:2 and others

Handling of fertilizers:

As a result of the inherent hazards of fertilizers such as stinging sensations, blisters, itching irritations and other skin diseases, care should be taken to avoid bodily contacts. Ilierclbre, the user should always put on gloves and protective clothings when handling fertilizers.

Storage of fertilizers:

Fertilizers are stored in bags of synthetic fabrics which prevent entry of water and moist air that could lead to dissolution.

Tarpaulins should be used to give additional protection to the fertilizers stored at ports warehouses, field depots of the Ministry of Agriculture and other agencies.

Farmers should construct a simple fertilizer store among their stead.

They should be stored differently according to types for easy identification and access. Platforms of wood should be made on which the bags are stacked, up to a considerable height, to avoid slippage and allow for easy stock taking. I

it should not rest on the wail. Air circulation should be encouraged in the store.

Advantages of fertilizer application

  1. They bring about increase in crop yield.
  2. They increase farm income.
  3. They increase the productivity of poor soils.
  4. They are easily transported to where they are needed compared to organic manures.
  5. They are used on large scale.
  6. The nutrients in fertilizers are readily available to crops.

Disadvantages of fertilizer uses and proper ways to apply fertilizers

  1. Fertilizers are easily leached in the soil.
  2. Some fertilizers leave acidic residues in the soil.
  3. Inorganic manures do not improve soil structure.
  4. Some of the nutrients are easily lost as gases under intense heat of the sun. Example is ammonia. 5. Fertilizers are expensive to procure.
  5. They are sometimes not available at the time of need.

best Methods of applying fertilizers or proper ways to apply fertilizers

  1. Broadcasting: This is where fertilizer is evenly spread on the farmland. It could be done before ploughing or tillage to incorporate it into the soil.
  2. Side dressing or application: This is where small quantity of fertilizer is placed on one or two sides of individual crop.

  1. Ring application:
  2. A shallow trench is dug round individual crop a few centimetres away from the stem. Fertilizer is then sprinkled in the trench and covered with soil.
  1. Row application: This is where fertilizer is applied in row few centimetres from the crops. It is suitable when crops are planted in rows
  2. Top dressing: This is where it is applied to the surface soil within the reach of the roots of crops during the growing stage.
  3. Foliage application: This is where soluble fertilizers are applied as sprays on the leaves of crops.

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STUDY QUESTIONS on proper ways to apply fertilizers
1. What is soil fertility? How is it different from a fertile soil?
2. (a) List five ways through which the fertility of the soil can be maintained.
(b) Mention two advantages and two disadvantages of using each way mentioned.
3. Name three types of organic manures.
4. How would you prepare suitable organic manure for use in your school farm’:’
5. List three advantages and two disadvantages of each type of organic manure.
6. List two types of inorganic fertilizer you have studied. Mention three advantages and disadvantages of their uses in crop production
7. Enumerate five methods of fertilizers application.
8. Write short notes on the following:
(b) Mixed or compound fertilizers
(c) Straight or simple fertilizers
(d) Green manure
(e) Cover cropping

  1. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
    30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
    31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
    32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
    33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
    34. OIL PALM
    35. USES OF PALM OIL
    36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
    37. COCOA

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