livestock reproduction. what is livestock? livestock is the rearing of animals for the sole purpose of sale and consumption.
so livestock reproduction is the act of reproduction that takes place in farm animals either assisted breeding or natural breeding.
so in this post, we are going to look at the various ways livestock reproduction is made possible by the practice of animal husbandry. REPRODUCTION IN FARM ANIMALS, MEANING OF REPRODUCTION
what is livestock reproduction?
livestock Reproduction is the ability of farm animals to give birth to young ones. The purpose of reproduction is to ensure continuity of life.
The livestock reproductive system includes all the organs and tissues concerned with reproduction in animals.
Farm animals reproduce sexually and are mostly viviparous because they bear their young ones alive. Poultry birds on the other hand are oviparous because they produce their young by hatching eggs after an incubation period. read my post on the process of egg formation here
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM IN MAMMALS AND POULTRY
The reproductive system includes all the organs and tissues concerned with reproduction in animals. Reproduction is the ability of animals.
Reproduction is the ability of an animal to give birth to young ones. The purpose of reproduction is to ensure continuity of life.
the livestock reproduction. the reproductive system is heterosexual and requires both a male and a female, each to contribute half of the genetic constitution of the offspring.
The female contributes in the ovum carried by the egg yolk produced by the ovary. The ovum is often referred to as the blastodisc, blastoderm or germ disc.
The male contributes his half by way of the sperm produced by the testes and carried in the semen.
Farm animals reproduce sexually and are mostly viviparous because they bear their young ones alive.
Poultry birds on the other hand are oviparous because they produce their young by hatching eggs after an incubation period.
LIVESTOCK REPRODUCTION, MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
The male reproductive system includes the testes which produce the spermatozoa and the sex hormone called testosterone which aids the development of male sexual secondary characteristics.
The spermatozoa are specifically produced in the seminiferous tubules of the testes during meiotic cell division by a process called spermatogenesis.
The testes are suspended or protected by a scrotal sac (scrotum) outside the abdominal cavity to enable sperm cells to the produced at the desired temperature.
The epididymis ensures the storage and maturation of sperm cells in the testes.
The testes are connected to the uterus masculine by the vas deferens which transports sperm from the testes to the uterus masculine where matured spermatozoa are stored until they are released during coitus or mating.
Blood vessels called spermatic cord supply nutrients and oxygen spermatic cord supply nutrients and oxygen to the testes. Located along the urethra are accessory glands which are the coper’s glands.
They produce slimy alkaline fluid which aids the movement of spermatozoa in livestock reproduction
This fluid together with the spermatozoa results in the formation of semen. The urethra is a urogenital organ which helps to inject sperm into the vigina as well as remove urine.
The urethra ends externally in the penis.
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM IN LIVESTOCK:
The female reproductive system includes the ovaries which produce the ovum or ova (eggs) enclose by the graffian follicles and some hormones such as oestrogen.
A matured egg or ovum is released from the follicle in the ovary into the oviduct. This process is called ovulation.
As the ovum or egg is released from the ovary, the female animal comes into ‘heat’ and is willing to make with the male animal.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
, which is the fusion of the male sex cell (spermatozoa) and the female sex cell (egg or ovum) that takes place in the fallopian tubes or the oviduct.
When the egg is fertilized by the spermatozoa, the fertilized egg anchors itself to the wall of the uterus. This process is called implantation.
The development of the foetus takes place in the uterus. Below the uterus is the virgina which receives the spermatozoa during copulation. The female reproductive system terminates with an external opening called the vulva.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE EMBRYO (FOETUS) IN LIVESTOCK REPRODUCTION:
The fertilized eggs are implanted in the uterus where the development of the embryo takes place. Soon, a number of embryonic membranes develop around the embryo.
These are the chorion, the allantois and the yolk sac. The amnion forms a sac in which the embryo lies and is filled with ammonitic fluid. livestock reproduction
Hence, the embryo is held in a liquid environment which acts as a buffer or “shock absorber”. This ensures the protection of the embryo. The allantoises form a sac which is excretory, respiratory and nutritive in function.
It contributes to the formation of the placenta. The yolk sac provides food during the early stages of embryonic development.
The chorion forms the outermost membrane, enveloping all these structures=== livestock reproduction
The placenta established an intimate connection between the embryo and the mother which aids the nutritional, respiratory and excretory needs of the embryo (foetus).
The placenta and the embryo are connected by the umbilical cord which develops from the allantois. The parental blood supply is linked to the foetal blood supply through this umbilical cord.
At the end of the gestation period (from fertilization to birth), parturition (giving birth) takes place during which the young animal is pushed out through the vagina.
The remaining part of the embryonic membrane known as after-birth is sent out after the birth of the foetus.
LIVESTOCK REPRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN BIRDS
In the male bird, the two testes are located inside the body. A narrow tube connects them to the cloaca in which the tube ends as a small raised papilla.
In the female, only the left ovary is functioning, The single ovary produces ova (eggs) in capsules attached to the ovary by short stalks. The ovary also produces the yolk.
The infundibulum receives the yolk released by the ovary. Albumen and chalaza (which hold the yolk and germ cell in position) are formed in the magnum.
The two shell membranes and the shape of the egg are formed in the isthmus.
The eggshell is finally formed in the uterus after which the egg is laid through the cloaca.
Fertilization occurs before the formation of the albumen.
FUNCTIONS OF THE LIVESTOCK REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
(i) It ensures the continuity of species by gamete for motion, coitus, mating or servicing
(ii) It ensures the formation of eggs and spermatozoa (sperm cells).
(iii) It ensures the production of reproductive hormones.
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