LIVESTOCK REPRODUCTION

REPRODUCTION

MEANING OF REPRODUCTION
Reproduction is the ability in animal to give birth to young ones. The purpose of reproduction is to ensure continuity of life.
The reproductive system includes all the organs and tissues concerned with reproduction in animals.

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Farm animals reproduce sexually and are mostly viviparous because they bear their young ones alive. Poultry birds on the other hand are oviparous because they produce their young ones by hatching eggs after an incubation period.

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM IN MAMMALS AND POULTRY

The reproductive system includes all the organs and tissues concerned with reproduction in animals. Reproduction is the ability in animals. Reproduction is the ability in an animal to give birth to young ones. The purpose of reproduction is to ensure continuity of life.

Farm animals reproduce sexually and are mostly viviparous because they bear their young ones alive. Poultry birds on the other hand are oviparous because they produce their young ones by hatching eggs after an incubation period.

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

The male reproductive system includes the testes which produce the spermatozoa and sex hormone called testosterone which aids the development of male sexual secondary characteristics.

The spermatozoa are specifically produced in the semiferous tubules of testes during meiotic cell division by a process called spermatogenesis.

The testes are suspended or protected by scrotal sac (scrotum) outside the abdominal avity to enable sperm ells to the produced at desired temperature.

The epididymis ensures the storage and maturation of sperm cells in the testes. The testes are connected to the uterus masculinus by vas deferens which transports sperms from testes to the uterus masculinus where matured spermatozoa are stored until they are released during coitus or mating. Blood vessels called spermatic cord supply nutrients and oxygen spermatic cord supply nutrients and oxygen to the testes. Located along the urethra are accessory glands which are the coper’s gland. They prduce slimy alkaline fuild which aids the movement of spermatozoa.

This fluid together with the spermatozoa results in the formation of semen. The urethra is a uro-genital organ which helps to inject sperms into the vigina as well as the removal of urine. The urethra ends externally in penis.

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:

The female reproductive system includes the ovaries which produce the ovum or ova (eggs) enclose by the graffian follicles and some hormones such as the oestrogen.
A matured egg or ovum is released from the follicle in the ovary into the oviduct. This process is called ovulation.
As the ovum or egg is released from the ovary, the female animal comes into ‘heat’ and is willing to make with the male animal.

Fertilization

, which is the fusion of the male sex cell (spermatozoa) and the female sex cell (egg or ovum) takes place in the fallopian tubes or the oviduct. When the egg is fertilized by the spermatozoa, the fertilized egg anchors itself to the wall of the uterus. This process is called implantation. The development of the foetus takes place in the uterus. Below the uterus is the vigina which receives the spermatozoa during corpulation. The female reproductive system terminates with an external opening called the vulva.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE EMBRYO (FOETUS):

The fertilized eggs is implanted in the uterus where the development of the embryo takes place. Soon, a number of embryonic membranes develop round the embryo. These are: the chorion, the allantois and the yolksac. The amnion forms a sac in which the embryo lies and is filled with ammonitic fluid.

Hence, the embryo is held in a liquid environment which acts as a buffer or “shock absorber”. This ensures the protection of the embryo. The allantoises forms a sac which is excretory, respiratory and nutritive in function.

It contributes to the formation of placenta. The yolk sac provides the food during the early stages of embryonic development. The chorinon forms the outermost membrane, enveloping all these structures.

The placenta established an intimate connection between the embryo and the mother which aids nutritional, respiratory and excretory needs of the embryo (foetus).

The placenta and the embryo are connected by the umbilical cord which develops from the allantois. The parental blood supply is linked to the foetal blood supply through this umbilical cord.
At the end of the gestation period (from fertilization to birth), parturition (giving birth) takes place during which the young animals is pushed out through the vagina.

The remaining part of the embryonic membrane known as after-birth is sent out after the birth of the foetus.

REPRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN BIRDS

In the male bird, the two testes are located inside the body. A narrow tube connects them to the cloaca in which the tube ends as a small raised papilla.
In the female, only the left ovary is functioning,. The ingle ovary produces ova (eggs) in capsules attached to the ovary by short stalks. The ovary also produces the yolk.

The infundibulum receives the yolk releases by the ovary. Albumen and chalaza (which hold the yolk and germ cell in position) are formed in the magnum. The two shell membranes and the shape of the egg are formed in the isthmus.

The egg shell is finally formed in the uterus after which the egg is laid through the cloaca. Fertilization of the egg can take place as soon as the egg enters the oviduct when spermatozoa are present.
Fertilization occurs before the formation of the albumen.

FUNCTIONS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

(i) It ensures the continuity of species by gamete for motion, coitus, mating or servicing
(ii) It ensures the formation of eggs and spermatozoa (sperm cells).
(iii) It ensures the production of reproductive hormones.

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WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

  1. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
    19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
    20. INCUBATORS
    21. MILKING MACHINE
    22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
    23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
    24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
    25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
    26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
    27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
    28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
    29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
    30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
    31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
    32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
    33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
    34. OIL PALM
    35. USES OF PALM OIL
    36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
    37. COCOA

38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE

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