what is parasitic nutrition

what is parasitic nutrition? PARASITIC PLANTS AND THEIR NUTRITION. As we learnt earlier that parasitism is an association in which an organism called the parasite though different from the partner called HOST but feeds directly off its host thereby causing harm to the host. So without a host there is no parasitism in place.

So if parasitic nutrition in animals involves two organisms of different species, then there is also what we call parasitic nutrition in plant, and that plants are also living things.

So then what is parasitic nutrition in plants?
Parasitic nutrition in plants is a type of nutrition in plant which a PRIMARY PLANT Lives on another secondary host for survival and feeding.

TYPES OF PARASITIC PLANTS

i. CASSYTHA FILIFORMIS (DODDER) Cassytha is a thin, thread-like stem which normally coils around the stem of anther plant. At intervals, Cassytha sends out suckers which grows through the stem of the host until it reaches the phloem tissue of the host from which it absorbs manufactured food from the host.

Cassytha is regarded as a complete parasite because it absorbs already made food from its host.
Cassytha has no root,
Cassytha has no chlorophyll hence it cannot manufacture its own food

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ii. MISTLETOE: the Mistletoe is a type of parasitic plant commonly found growing on another plant, called the host. Mistletoe is photosynthetic which means it has green leaves and can synthesize its own food.

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iii. However it described as a partial parasite because its roots only penetrates into the xylem tissues of the host where it only absorbs water to enable it manufacture its own food through the process called photosynthesis.

PARASITIC PLANTS AND THEIR NUTRITION

As we learnt earlier that parasitism is an association in which an organism called the parasite though different from the partner called HOST but feeds directly off its host thereby causing harm to the host. So without a host there is no parasitism in place.

Most plants are autotrophs and produce their own carbon compounds through photosynthesis. Although some plants such as Indian pipe (Monotropa) (Figure 1) lack chlorophyll and appear to be parasitic, they are mycoheterotrophs (parasites of mycorrhizal fungi) and, hence, only indirectly parasitize the trees on which the mycorrhizal fungi are found. Here we define a parasitic plant as an angiosperm (flowering plant) that directly attaches to another plant via a haustorium. A haustorium is a specialized structure that forms a morphological and physiological link between the parasite and host (Figure 2) (Kuijt 1969, Yoshida et al. 2016). It is useful to make a distinction between the terms “parasite” and “pathogen.” Parasite is from the Greek para (beside) and sitos (grain or food) which literally means “beside the food”. If a plant also induces disease symptoms in a host, then it is a pathogen as well as parasite. A general term that refers to both parasites and mycotrophs that derive carbon from sources other than their own photosynthesis is heterotrophic, which simply means “different feeding.”

So if parasitic nutrition in animals involves two organisms of different species, then there is also what we call parasitic nutrition in plant, and that plants are also living things.

So then what is parasitic nutrition in plants?

Parasitic nutrition in plants is a type of nutrition in plant which a PRIMARY PLANT Lives on another secondary host for survival and feeding.

TYPES OF PARASITIC PLANTS

iv. CASSYTHA FILIFORMIS (DODDER) Cassytha is a thin, thread-like stem which normally coils around the stem of anther plant. At intervals, Cassytha sends out suckers which grows through the stem of the host until it reaches the phloem tissue of the host from which it absorbs manufactured food from the host.

Cassytha is regarded as a complete parasite because it absorbs already made food from its host.
Cassytha has no root,
Cassytha has no chlorophyll hence it cannot manufacture its own food

v. MISTLETOE: the Mistletoe is a type of parasitic plant commonly found growing on another plant, called the host. Mistletoe is photosynthetic which means it has green leaves and can synthesize its own food.
vi. However it described as a partial parasite because its roots only penetrates into the xylem tissues of the host where it only absorbs water to enable it manufacture its own food through the process called photosynthesis.

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CAPITAL CONSUMPTION

Meaning: capital consumption refers to the using up of existing capital stock and not replacing worn-out capital goods used in production. When fixed assets like building, motor vehicles, plants and machinery are being used and tear of these capital goods which reduce their value that is referred to in economic as consumption or depreciation. During the period of capital consumption enough saving are not made to maintain and place depreciating capital goods or assets. If a country finds it difficult to maintain its stock of capital, either by making provision for appreciation or her inability to replace worn-out on capital or consuming capital and this affects the standard of living of the people negatively.

4.14       THE ENTREPRENUER

Definition: an entrepreneur can be defined as the factor of production that co-ordinates and organizes other factor of production (Land, Labour and Capital) in order to produce goods and services. The entrepreneur bears the risks and takes major decisions of the business. He risks his capital in setting up the business with the aim of obtaining maximum profit.

In summary, the entrepreneur is the person who co-ordinates, controls and organizes the process of production in order to make maximum output at minimum cost thereby making profits. He is the M.D or CEO in an executive office. The reward for entrepreneur is profit.

Characteristics of entrepreneur

  • Risk bearer: he risks his capital in the course of investment and whatever comes out of it, whether good or bad, he has to take.
  • Organization: he organizes productive resources for the production of goods and services.
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