cultural practices in the production of rice
These can be done where applicable.
Fertilizer application in rice farm:
Apply 150kg or three bags of N.P.K fertilizer per hectare at planting by broadcasting.
Weeding rice farm as a cultural practice:
Weeding is done to ensure rapid growth of rice pests and diseases: these should be prevented or controlled by spraying with appropriate chemicals.
Maturity period of rice:
Rice matures in four to seven months depending on variety.
Harvesting of rice
Red heads of rice are cut off with knife, sickle or combined harvester.
How to process rice
Sun drying: This is done immediately after harvesting for three to four days.
Threshing: This is the separation of the grains from the stalk by either beating with stick, treading with feet or by the use of mechanical threshers.
Winnowing: After threshing, the chaff or unwanted dust and remains of stalks are removed by winnowing. This is a fanning operation usually done by throwing the grains in the air to blow away the dust and other residues.
After winnowing, the grains of rice remain enclosed by the husk to form what is called paddy.
Parboiling of rice.
This process is used to reduce the breakage of grains during pounding. It also brings some vitamins to the outer layer of the grains and it also reduces the labour required to remove the husks. The paddy rice is heated by putting it into boiling water for about 12-15 hours. The rice swells and the husks are forced apart. The parboiled rice is now sun-dried.
Hulling of rice: This is the removal of the husks from the grains. The grains are pounded gently to remove the expanded husks. The husks are then separated from the rice by winnowing
(f) Polishing: In some cases, the paddy rice is threshed by machine, and polished. Polishing involves the use of specially designed machines to remove the husks and other layers covering the grains. The portion removed is known as rice bran which is very rich in protein and vitamins. Consumption of polished rice may cause vitamin deficiency disease called beri-beri due to the removal of the bran rich in protein.