TYPES OF PIG AND MANAGEMENT

Importance of Pigs

Pigs are very important farm animals because they provide the following products:
(a) Pork: The meat of pigs with thick layer of fat.
(b) Bacon: salted or smoked dry meat from the back or sides of a pig.
(c) Lard: fats from pig, used for various industrial purposes as well as domestic cooking.

(d) Bristles: hairs from pigs used in making brushes which are used fine artists.
(e) Pigs also provide source of income to the farmers.

 Some common terms used in Piggery or pig farming

  1. Boar: Adult male pig
  2. Sow: Adult female pig
  3. Gilt: a young sow which is not yet an adult
  4. Piglet: young pigs of either sex
  5. Litter: all the newly born young ones of a pig
  6. Hog: castrated male pig
  7. Farrowing; the process of giving birth to young ones by sows
  8. Lard: fats from pigs
  9. Ham: the upper part of a pig’s leg.
  10. Pork: the meat of a pig.

Breeds of Pigs

The commonest local breed of pig is the local West African This is small in si/e and can be found in muddy areas of South Nigeria.

However, the temperate breeds of pigs do better in the trojf than the local types. These imported breeds include:

(a) Large white
(b) Land race
(c) Duroc
(d) Large black

(e) Poland China
(f) Yorkshire
(g) Tain worth
(h) Chester white

Pig Management

(i) Conditions for Keeping Temperate Breeds of Pig in Tropics: Pigs as a whole are non- sweating animals, therefore they require special conditions for management. They do ben a temperature of 16″C. Therefore, they require cool condition As most pigs are pigmented. shades should be made available the lards.

Wherever pigs are kept, there should be adequate water surf in the form of a wallow or sprinkling system, and a clean surf for drinking.

In the Southern part of Nigeria, the pigs are preferably managed, in-doors and the buildings screened from flies. Most outdoors are liable in worm And tsetse-fly infestation.

Pigs prefer to lie on dry surface when sleeping, so drainage in Pens is essential. The pens must be scrubbed daily.
This helps to check internal parasites. Dry grasses spread on the floor of the pens every evening am morning.

(ii) pig Housing: An ideal Pigs house is a building containing pens of which six are for farrowing and suckling, out hoar and the remaining seven for the fatteners and growers.

For the purposes of management, pigs can be subdivided into:
1. Piglets (young ones still suckling)
2. Weaners (Piglets that have stopped suckling)
3. Fatteners
4. Boars (adult males used for breeding)
5. Sows (adult females used for breeding).

The walls of the pig pens are usually low not exceeding 1 metre high. Pigs are very destructive animals and can easily eat up main floor made of weak concrete. The mixture should therefore be such that can withstand their destructive activities. The floor also should be rough to avoid slipping off.

A Pig’s house must contain the pen proper, and a run for sun light. The whole building should be screened against Hies. This is very necessary in humid areas where tse-tse flie are very many.

The feeding troughs and waterers are also made of good concrete mixture. each pig is allowed 25-30 cm of feeding space.

(iii) Farrowing Pens: These contain farrowing or guard rails 20 cm horn the wafls and 30 cm high. These can be made of 5cm water pipes or 7 ½ cm hard wood. The rails provide an area where the piglets can be pushed into after birth without the danger of the sow lying on them.
(iv) Keep Feeding: Creep feeding is the feed of piglets separate Irom their mothers. This is necessary because the nutritional needs of the piglets and that of the dams (mother) are quite different. Leeds suitable for the sow are too coarse and not palatable enough for the piglets. Similarly, the feeds suitable for the piglets are too expensive for the sows. Creep feeds are provided on small troughs and served in such a way that the sou cannot get at them. A creep feeding place can be made by barricading off a corner of the piglets can get in while the dam cannot.

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pig farm house

WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

  1. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
    19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
    20. INCUBATORS
    21. MILKING MACHINE
    22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
    23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
    24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
    25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
    26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
    27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
    28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
    29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
    30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
    31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
    32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
    33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
    34. OIL PALM
    35. USES OF PALM OIL
    36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
    37. COCOA

38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE

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pig management environment

  1. BALANCED DIETS
    141. LACTATION DIETS
    142. MALNUTRITION
  2. RINDER PESTS
    148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
    149. BACTERIA DISEASES
    150. ANTHRAX
    151. BRUCELLOSIS
    152. TUBERCULOSIS
    153. FUNGAL DISEASES
  3. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
    155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS

    159. TAPE WORM
    160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
    161. LIVER FLUKE
    162. ECTO PARASITES
    163. TICK

(v) Breeding: All breeding pigs both sows and gilts should have at least 12-14 teats in their udder: Gilts and boars can be bred together until they are four months old to be separated thereafter.

Gilts are served when 7-8 months old while a boar is ready for service when eight months old and can be used for service till it is 5-6 years old. During oestrus (heat period), a sow sheds a large number of ova.

For complete fertilization, a sou should be served twice during oestrus, that is at 12th hours and 36lh hour after the on set of oestrus because it lasts 2-5 days. Oestrus recurs at intervals of 21 days. Gestation period is about 114 days.

(vi) Farrowing: The pig keeper must regulate the interval of lifter (groups of young ones) so that the sows do not farrow (give birth) at the same time. He needs a steady inflow of young pigs arriving at about the same rate as he is disposing the mature ones. This is achieved by regulating the time of sen ice of the sows by boars. Under good management, a sow can produce two litters a year.

A sow can successfully produce 8 to 14 piglets per litter. An in-pig (pregnant) Sow must be brought into the farrowing pen a week before farrowing. .Litter (e.g. dry grasses) should be provided which she can use to build a nest. The nest should not be swept out while cleaning the pen. During farrowing, it is-necessary for the pig keeper to he around to provide assistance to ensure the safe delivery and survival of the piglets.

(vii) Suckling: The piglets start suckling immediately alter birth. Generally, each piglet keeps its own teat. For this reason, (he number of piglets normally do not exceed the numbers of teals. Excess piglets can be raised by hand (artificially) or foster mother. After three weeks, a creep should be provided to feed the piglets with solid feeds. They are weaned after 5-8 weeks. Weaning should be done gradually by taking the sou out of the pen for increasing periods during the day.

This avoids any set-back at weaning. A well developed piglet should be 35% by weight at time of weaning.
The lactation period of a pig is 12weeks; and a sow comes on heat 2-5 days after drying off.

(viii) Castration of Piglets: Male piglets that arc not required for breeding (reproduction) are castrated at the age of six weeks. This is to check indiscriminate mating. Castration of a pig does not affect the odour, flavor, or the tenderness of the meat.

(i) Fattening: In the tropics, pigs are mainly produced for Few are raised for bacon or lard. Pigs are usually fattened groups of the same age and the type of ration required for rattening is different from that required by piglets or sows. Also, (here are changes in rations to suit different fattening stages.

\

A good porker weighing about 60kg should be produced in 5 months. Hogs (castrated males) usually fatten faster than gilts of the same age and breed. Pig ration for different ages are often pit-pared by feed mills. The recommended basic rations are:
(a) Creed feed: 1 – 5 weeks

(b) Weaner’s diet: 5-8 weeks
(c) Grower’s diet: As from 8 weeks (35-55kg)
(d) Fattener’s diet: from 55kg to slaughter weight of 90-100kg.
(e) Breeder’s diet: fed to sows and boars used for breeding from weaning age.
(x) Hygiene: Pig’s house should be kept clean always to prevent pesi and disease attack. Common parasites of pigs are round norm, ticks, tsetse flies. The common diseases include: swine trvcr. anthrax, swine dysentery, pneumonia, enteritis and others, These can be prevented by maintaining good hygiene in the pig’s house.

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  1. economic tools for nation building
  2. budgeting
  3. factors affecting the expansion of industries
  4. mineral resources and the mining industries
  5. demand and supply
  6. types of demand curve and used
  7. advertising industry
  8. factors of production
  9. entrepreneur
  10. joint stock company
  11. public enterprises
  12. private enterprises
  13. limited liability companies
  14. migration
  15. population
  16. market concept
  17. money market
  18. shares
  19. how companies raises funds for expansion

WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

  1. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
    19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
    20. INCUBATORS
    21. MILKING MACHINE
    22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
    23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
    24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
    25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
    26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
    27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
    28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
    29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
    30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
    31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
    32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
    33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
    34. OIL PALM
    35. USES OF PALM OIL
    36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
    37. COCOA

38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE

check out these recent posts

  1. loans for businesses
  2. how to establish enterprises
  3. what is a firm
  4. price equilibrium
  5. scale of preference
  6. concept of economics
  7. economic tools for nation building
  8. budgeting
  9. factors affecting the expansion of industries
  10. mineral resources and the mining industries
  11. demand and supply
  12. types of demand curve and used
  13. advertising industry
  14. factors of production
  15. entrepreneur
  16. joint stock company
  17. public enterprises
  18. private enterprises
  19. limited liability companies
  20. migration
  21. population
  22. market concept
  23. money market
  24. shares
  25. how companies raises funds for expansion
  1. BALANCED DIETS
    141. LACTATION DIETS
    142. MALNUTRITION
  2. RINDER PESTS
    148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
    149. BACTERIA DISEASES
    150. ANTHRAX
    151. BRUCELLOSIS
    152. TUBERCULOSIS
    153. FUNGAL DISEASES
  3. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
    155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS

    159. TAPE WORM
    160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
    161. LIVER FLUKE
    162. ECTO PARASITES
    163. TICK

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