types of pig and management, Importance of Pigs, Pigs are very important farm animals because they provide the following products:
SO LET\’S SEE WHAT animalsmart.org HAS TO SAY ABOUT types of pig and management, \”Ironically, despite their history in the Middle East, pork is forbidden in Judaism, Islam and some orthodox Christian sects
. Many Buddhists and Hindus also do not eat pork, though this is due more to their vegetarianism rather than a particular doctrine against pork.
Pigs are not picky eaters and are thus fed a wide range of foods. They are often fed surplus crops and food byproducts that humans don’t or can’t eat.
Pigs are raised both by individuals and on an industrial scale, and their housing depends upon the climate of the region.
In warmer locales, they can usually be outside all year long; in the cold climate of the United Kingdom, they are often housed in specialized indoor pig farms during the winter. so what do people think about types of pig and management?
People rarely think of pigs being used for any other purpose other than their meat, but pigs sometimes have secondary jobs.
In France, some pigs are trained to find black truffles, a delicious yet notoriously difficult delicacy to find. Some rural societies have “garbage pigs,” which scavenge the scraps of the town.
This scavenging cleans up the town and allows them to later slaughter and use the pig’s meat with minimal investment in feed.
In addition, pig parts are used to make all sorts of things. Pig heart valves are even used as a replacement for failing heart valves in humans\” so types of pig and management include the following terms below
(a) Pork: The meat of pigs with thick layer of fat.
(b) Bacon: salted or smoked dry meat from the back or sides of a pig.
(c) Lard: fats from pig, used for various industrial purposes as well as domestic cooking.
Some common terms used in Piggery or pig farming
- Boar: Adult male pig
- Sow: Adult female pig
- Gilt: a young sow which is not yet an adult
- Piglet: young pigs of either sex
- Litter: all the newly born young ones of a pig
- Hog: castrated male pig
- Farrowing; the process of giving birth to young ones by sows
- Lard: fats from pigs
- Ham: the upper part of a pig\’s leg.
- Pork: the meat of a pig.
types of Pig and management
The commonest local breed of pig is the local West African This is small in si/e and can be found in muddy areas of South Nigeria., However, the temperate breeds of pigs do better on the roof than the local types. These imported types of pig and management breeds include:
(a) Large white
(b) Land race
(d) Large black
(e) Poland China
(g) Tain worth
(h) Chester white
Pig Management practices
(i) Conditions for Keeping Temperate Breeds of Pig in Tropics: Pigs as a whole are non- sweating animals, therefore they require special conditions for management.
They do ben a temperature of 16\”C. Therefore, they require cool condition As most pigs are pigmented. shades should be made available the lards.
Wherever pigs are kept, there should be adequate water surf in the form of a wallow or sprinkling system, and a clean surf for drinking.
In the Southern part of Nigeria, the pigs are preferably managed, in-doors and the buildings screened from flies. Most outdoors are liable for worm And tsetse-fly infestation.
Pigs prefer to lie on dry surface when sleeping, so drainage in Pens is essential. The pens must be scrubbed daily.
This helps to check internal parasites. Dry grasses spread on the floor of the pens every evening am morning.
(ii) pig Housing: An ideal Pigs house is a building containing pens of which six are for farrowing and suckling, out hoar and the remaining seven for the fatteners and growers.
For the purposes types of pig and management,, pigs can be subdivided into:
1. Piglets (young ones still suckling)
2. Weaners (Piglets that have stopped suckling)
4. Boars (adult males used for breeding)
5. Sows (adult females used for breeding).
The walls of the pig pens are usually low not exceeding 1 metre high. Pigs are very destructive animals and can easily eat up main floor made of weak concrete.
The mixture should therefore be such that can withstand their destructive activities. The floor also should be rough to avoid slipping off.
A Pig\’s house must contain the pen proper, and a run for sun light. The whole building should be screened against Hies. This is very necessary in humid areas where tse-tse flie are very many.
The feeding troughs and waterers are also made of good concrete mixture. each pig is allowed 25-30 cm of feeding space.
(iii) Farrowing Pens: These contain farrowing or guard rails 20 cm horn the wafls and 30 cm high. These can be made of 5cm water pipes or 7 ½ cm hard wood.
The rails provide an area where the piglets can be pushed into after birth without the danger of the sow lying on them.
(iv) Keep Feeding: Creep feeding is the feed of piglets separate Irom their mothers. This is necessary because the nutritional needs of the piglets and that of the dams (mother) are quite different.
Leeds suitable for the sow is too coarse and not palatable enough for the piglets. Similarly, the feeds suitable for the piglets are too expensive for the sows.
Creep feeds are provided on small troughs and served in such a way that the sou cannot get at them. A creep feeding place can be made by barricading off a corner of the piglets can get in while the dam cannot.
Gilts are served when 7-8 months old while a boar is ready for service when eight months old and can be used for service till it is 5-6 years old. During oestrus (heat period), a sow sheds a large number of ova====== types of pig and management
For complete fertilization, a sou should be served twice during oestrus, that is at 12th hours and 36lh hour after the on set of oestrus because it lasts 2-5 days.
Oestrus recurs at intervals of 21 days. The gestation period is about 114 days.
(vi) Farrowing: The pig keeper must regulate the interval of lifter (groups of young ones) so that the sows do not farrow (give birth) at the same time.
This is achieved by regulating the time of sen ice of the sows by boars. Under good management, a sow can produce two litters a year.====== types of pig and management
A sow can successfully produce 8 to 14 piglets per litter. An in-pig (pregnant) Sow must be brought into the farrowing pen a week before farrowing.
Litter (e.g. dry grasses) should be provided which she can use to build a nest. The nest should not be swept out while cleaning the pen.
During farrowing, it is-necessary for the pig keeper to he around to provide assistance to ensure the safe delivery and survival of the piglets.
(vii) Suckling: The piglets start suckling immediately alter birth. Generally, each piglet keeps its own teat. For this reason, (he number of piglets normally does not exceed the number of teals.
Excess piglets can be raised by hand (artificially) or foster mother. After three weeks, a creep should be provided to feed the piglets with solid feeds. They are weaned after 5-8 weeks. Weaning should be done gradually by taking the sou out of the pen for increasing periods during the day.
This avoids any set-back at weaning. A well-developed piglet should be 35% by weight at the time of weaning.
The lactation period of a pig is 12 weeks, and a sow comes on heat 2-5 days after drying off.=== types of pig and management
(viii) Castration of Piglets: Male piglets that arc not required for breeding (reproduction) are castrated at the age of six weeks.
This is to check indiscriminate mating. Castration of a pig does not affect the odour, flavor, or the tenderness of the meat.
(i) Fattening: In the tropics, pigs are mainly produced for Few are raised for bacon or lard. Pigs are usually fattened groups of the same age and the type of ration required for fattening is different from that required by piglets or sows.
Also, (here are changes in rations to suit different fattening stages.
A good porker weighing about 60kg should be produced in 5 months. Hogs (castrated males) usually fatten faster than gilts of the same age and breed.
Pig rations for different ages are often pit-pared by feed mills. The recommended basic rations are:
(a) Creed feed: 1 – 5 weeks
(b) Weaner\’s diet: 5-8 weeks
(c) Grower\’s diet: As from 8 weeks (35-55kg)
(d) Fattener\’s diet: from 55kg to slaughter weight of 90-100kg.
(e) Breeder\’s diet: fed to sows and boars used for breeding from weaning age.
(x) Hygiene: Pig\’s house should be kept clean always to prevent pest and disease attacks. Common parasites of pigs are roundworms, ticks, and tsetse flies.
The common diseases include swine fiver. anthrax, swine dysentery, pneumonia, enteritis and others, These can be prevented by maintaining good hygiene in the pig\’s house.
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types of pig and management
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