types of feeds for farm animals

Types of feeds in agriculture. Ration types feeds are classified according to the purpose they serve in the animals body. They include in:

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 Maintenance Ration types of feeds

This is the food given to animals to keep their live – weight constant.
The ration is so formulated as to enable the animal to carry on its metabolic activities like respiration, digestion, blood circulation

supplement and sleeping ration types of feeds

  1. Production Ration Ration supplied over and above that needed for maintenance purposes.

The ration is specially formulated to of the following purposes: reproduction, work, fattening and so on. Example is layers mash in poultry.

  1. Balanced Ration This is the ration that contains all the essential nutrients needed by the body in the correct proportion. The composition of a balanced ration includes proteins, carbohydrates , fats, minerals, vitamins well as water.

Malnutrition or lack of enough feeds

Malnutrition results when a ration does not provide all (read more here= the essential food nutrients in the correct proportion. That is both in quality and quantity.)

This could result if the food In the animal is very low in calorific value and as a result only little energy is supplied.

This condition is called marasmus.

Alternatively the foot may be very rich in one nutrients such as carbohydrate and and poor in others such as minerals, proteins and vitamins.

Malnutrition,

as in improper feeding, results in nutrients deficiency diseases such as

rickets (poor formation of limbs) and ketosis (low level of blood glucose).
Malnutrition may lead to:

(i) retarded growth in the a

(ii) low production

(iii) physical deformities

(iv) ill-health

(v) death.

types of Feeding Equipment for Animals

  1. Feeding Troughs

Aluminum Feeding Trough

Prepared feeds are put inside for the animal

  1. Water Troughs

Plastic Water Trough used for Chicks

4 ½ litres water trough made of aluminum used by older birds,

Types of Feeds in agriculture

Generally feeds may be classified into:
(a) Concentrates
(b) Succulents
(c) Roughages
(d) Supplements and additives.

  1. Concentrates
    These are made up of:
  2. Cereals such as maize, rice, millet, sorghum, etc. These are also referred to as basal feeds or energy concentrates.
  3. Leguminous seeds such as groundnut cake, soya beans cake, and others such as palm kernel cake, cotton seed cake. These are plant protein concentrate 3. Fish meal and blood meal. These are animal protein concentrates.

Concentrates are easily digested by farm animals.

Succulent  types of Feeds

These consist of:
1. Roots and tubers such as yam cassava, coco-yam, etc
2. Vegetables such as water leaf and shoko
3. forages such as pasture grasses
4. silage made from green fresh grass
5. Cane molasses mainly from sugar cane

irrigation

3. Roughages types of feeds

These consist of dry grasses which usually add bulk to animal feeds. Examples are Hay, Straw.
Hay: This is grass cut. dried and preserved for animals future use

types of feeds
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  1. Supplements and Additives
    Feed supplements are added to the main feed to supply one or more nutrients which might be lacking in the main feed.
  2. Cotton seed cake types of feeds
  3. Soya bean meal
  4. Groundnut cake
  5. Fish meal types of feeds
  6. Bone meal
  7. Egg shell meal
  8. Oyster shell meal
  9. Salt-licks
  10. Limestone
  11. Vitamins

The feed additives include:
1. Antibiotics
2. Amino acids
3. Hormones and so on.
These help to stabilize the feeds as well as improve on the quality and storability of the feeds.

9.2 Feed Nutrients
Many elements in varying combinations make up feed nutrients. These elements include carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, iodine, nitrogen, sulphur, calcium, iron, cobalt, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, copper, Florine, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, selenium and caromium.

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Based on the nutrients they supply the nutrients in animal types of feeds are as follows

feeds can be classified into six groups

  1. Carbohydrate
    Supplying energy, e.g cereals, roots and tubers, etc
  2. Proteins
    Needed for growth and repair of worn out tissues, e.g legumes such as soya bean, cotton seed, groundnut cakes, etc
  3. Fats
    Supplying energy and keeping the body temperature under control e.g. milk, coconuts, tubers, etc.
  4. Minerals
    They helo to carry out vital body function. Examples are: calcium, iron, iodine, potassium, sodium and so on.
  5. Vitamins
    They help to keep the animal healthy. examples are vitamins A, B,C,D, E and K
  6. Water
    This is a constituent of body fluid. It helps to regular body temperature, lubricate joints, transport body materials and breakdown (digestion) of food.

water is a class of food. read more

 Types of Ration

Rations are classified according to the purpose they serve in the animals body. They include in:

  1. Maintenance Ration
    This is the food given to animals to keep their live – weight constant. The ration is so formulated as to enable the animal to carry on its metabolic activities like respiration, digestion, blood circulation treatment and sleeping ration.
  2. Balanced Ration
    Ration supplied over and above that needed for maintenance purposes. The ration is specially formulated to of the following purposes: reproduction, work, fattening and so on. Example is layers mash in poultry.
  3. Balanced Ration
    This is the ration that contains all the essential nutrients needed by the body in the correct proportion. The composition of a balanced ration includes proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, vitamins well as water.
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    WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
    1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
    2. DISEASES
    3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
    4. ORGANIC MANURING
    5. FARM YARD MANURE
    6. HUMUS
    7. COMPOST
    8. CROP ROTATION
    9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
    10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE

  2. LICE

Malnutrition: Malnutrition results when a ration does not provide all the essential food nutrients in the correct proportion. That is both in quality and quantity.

This could result if the food In the animal is very low in calorific value and as a result only little energy is supplied. This condition is called marasmus.

Alternatively the foot may be very rich in one nutrients such as carbohydrate and and poor in others such as minerals, proteins and vitamins.

Malnutrition, as in improper feeding, results in nutrients deficiency diseases such as rickets (poor formation of limbs) and ketosis (low level of blood glucose). Malnutrition may lead to:
(i) retarded growth in the a
(ii) low production
(iii) physical deformities
(iv) ill-health
(v) death.

ROUGHAGES

  1. List three main types of feeds ad give two examples of each.
  2. Classify animal feeds based on the nutrients they supply
  3. Explain the following terms:

i. Maintenance ration

ii. Production ration

  1. Give four effects of malnutrition in farm animals. 5. List ten feed supplements and additives that a farmer, could add to the main feed to supply one or more nutrients that may be lacking.

Types of Feeds Generally feeds may be classified into: (a) Concentrates (b) Succulents (c) Roughages (d) Supplements and additives.

  1. Concentrates These are made up of: 1. Cereals such as maize, rice, millet, sorghum, etc. These are also referred to as basal feeds or energy concentrates.
  2. Leguminous seeds such as groundnut cake, soya beans cake, and others such as palm kernel cake, cotton seed cake. These are plant protein concentrates.
  3. Fish meal and blood meal. These are animal protein concentrates. Concentrates are easily digested by farm animals. Succulent Feeds These consist of: 1. Roots and tubers such as yam cassava, cocoyam,
  4. Vegetables such as water leaf and shoko 3. forages such as pasture grasses 4. silage made from green fresh grass 5. Cane molasses mainly from sugar cane Succulent feeds’are very high in water and are easily digested by lin in animals. Most green crops can be used as succulent feeds when they are young. 3. Roughages These consist of dry grasses which usually add bulk to animal feeds.

Examples are Hay, Straw. Hay: This is grass cut. dried and preserved for animals future use. 4. Supplements and Additives Feed supplements are added to the main feed to supply one or more nutrients which might be lacking in the main feed. The follow ing could serve as feed supplements:

  1. Cotton seed cake 2. Soya bean meal 3. Groundnut cake 4. Fish meal 5. Bone meal 6. Egg shell meal 7. Oyster shell meal 8. Saltlicks 9. Limestone 10. Vitamins

The feed additives include:
1. Antibiotics 2. Amino acids 3. Hormones and so on.

These help to stabilize the feeds as well as improve on the quality and storability of the feeds. 9.2 Feed Nutrients Many elements in varying combinations make up feed nutrients. These elements include carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, iodine, nitrogen, sulphur, calcium, iron, cobalt, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, copper, flourine, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, selenium and caromium. Based on the nutrients they supply the nutrients in animal feeds can be classified into six groups, viz:

  1. Carbonhydrates Supplying energy, e.g cereals, roots and tubers,
  1. Proteins Needed for growth and repair of worn out tissues, e.g legumes such as soya bean, cotton seed, groundnut cakes, etc 3. Fats Supplying energy and keeping the body temperature under control e.g. milk, coconuts, tubers, etc. 4. Minerals They help to carry out vital body function. Examples are: calcium, iron, iodine, potassium, sodium and so on. 5. Vitamins They help to keep the animal healthy. examples are vitamins A, B,C,D, E and K 6.

Water This is a constituent of body fluid. It helps to regular body temperature, lubricate joints, transport body materials and breakdown (digestions) of food. 9.3

Types of Ration Rations are classified according to the purpose they serve in the animals body. They include in: 1. Maintenance Ration This is the food given to animals to keep their live – weight constant. The ration is so formulated as to enable the animal to carry on its metabolic activities like respiration, digestion, blood circulation movement and sleeping ration.

  1. Balanced Ration Ration supplied over and above that needed for maintenance purposes. The ration is specially formulated to of the following purposes: reproduction, work, fattening and so on. Example is layers mash in poultry
  2. Balanced Ration

This types of feeds  is the ration that contains all the essential nutrients needed by the body in the correct proportion. The composition of a balanced ration includes proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, vitamins well as water. Malnutrition: Malnutrition results when a ration does not provide all the essential food nutrients in the correct proportion. That is both in quality and quantity. This could result if the food In the animal is very low in calorific value and as a result only little energy is supplied. This condition is called marasmus.

Alternatively the foot may be very rich in one nutrients such as carbonhydrate and and poor in others such as minerals, proteins and vitamins. Malnutrition, as in improper feeding, results in nutrients deficiency diseases such as rickets (poor formation of limbs) and ketosis (low level of blood glucose).

Malnutrition may lead to:
(i) retarded growth in the a
(ii) low production
(iii) physical deformities
(iv) ill-health (v) death.

9.4 Feeding Equipment for Animals 1. Feeding Troughs types of feeds. la: Wooden Feeding  Aluminium Feeding Trough Prepared feeds are put inside for the animal 2. Water Troughs DIAGRAM Figure 2.9.2a: Plastic Water Trough used for Chicks .2b: 4 ½ litres water trough made of aluminium used by older birds, STUDY QUESTIONS 1. List three main types of feeds ad give two examples of each. 2. Classify animal feeds based on the nutrients they supply 3. Explain the following terms: i. Maintenance ration ii. Production ration 4. Give four effects of malnutrition in farm animals. 5. List ten feed supplements and additives that a farmer, could add to the main feed to supply one or more nutrients that ma be lacking in any types of feeds

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