living things and non-living things

LIVING THINGS AND NON-LIVING THINGS, There are only two categories of things on earth, they are living thing and non-living thing.

Living thing includes plants and animals. Non-living thing are those things that doesn’t have life in them.

Examples of living thing includes man, rabbit, dogs, monkeys, lizards, cattle and grasses/weeds etc, while non-living thing are tables, chairs, iron, glass, plates etc.

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS

ALL LIVING THING ARE DISTINGUISHED FROM NON-LIVING THINGS BY A WHOLE LOT OF DIFFERENCES. This distinguishing factors are what is known as the characteristics of living things Living thing are different from non-living things in the following ways:

Living things can eat while non-living things cannot eat food

Living organisms can move while non-living things cannot move anywhere.
Living organisms can grow while non-living thing cannot grow.

. Living organisms can breathe in air while non-living thing cannot.
Living thing can reproduce while non-Living organisms cannot reproduce.
Living organisms have feelings, they can feel happy, sad or hurt while non-
Living organisms do not have any feelings.

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So the following are generally considered as the characteristics of living things.

  1. MOVEMENT: movement is defined as the ability of an organism, either in part or whole from place to place in search of food or comfort, reproduction and as a means of escape from danger.
  2. Generally most animals can move from place to place in search of food, while most plants can only move part of their body in response to stimuli unless for a few microscopic plants which are capable of complete movement.

NUTRITION.

Nutrition is defined as the ability of living things or organisms to feed. The major reason for feeding in living things is to enable them to carry out life processes like growth, reproduction, respiration and movement.

Although most green plants can manufacture their own food through a process known as photosynthesis, known also as autotrophic or holophytic nutrition types of plants

cannot manufacture their own food hence depend on food manufactured by plants, and this type of feeding is known as heterotrophic or holozoic nutrition.

  1. RESPIRATION. Respiration is defined as the exchange of gases between organisms and their environment. The main purpose of respiration is to break down/burn down or oxidize food substances in order to release energy that is used for all their life processes.
  1. EXCRETION.

Excretion is defined as the removal of metabolic wastes from the body of any living thing. The purpose of excretion is to remove the metabolic waste products from the system, e.g. water and carbon dioxide in animals, which are toxic to the body.
So the process of getting rid of these waste materials from the body is called excretion.

IRRITABILITY. Irritability is defined as the ability of an organism to respond to stimuli. All living things exhibit sensitivity in order to enable them survive in their environment. In clear terms, stimuli means the ability of any living thing to respond to changes that occurs within their environment.

GROWTH. Growth is defined as the irreversible or permanent increase in size, mass, or weight of an organism. It is most known as the increase or addition living proton plasmic materials within the cell of the organism. The purpose of growth is to enable the organism to repair or rebuild worn out tissues in their body..

REPRODUCTION. This is defined as the ability of a living organism to produce or give birth to offspring or young ones after its kind in order to enable continuity of life. So in practical terms, reproduction occurs in two forms.

Fragmentation: In some multicellular organisms such as Spirogyra, asexual reproduction occurs through fragmentation. Here, the parent body divides fragments, which develops into a new individual.

Budding: Some organisms reproduce by budding, where buds develop on the parent body. Each new bud develops into a new organism. Example for this is Hydra.

Sporogenesis: Some organisms produce reproductive cells called spores. These spores grow into new organisms. The spores can spread through wind or through other animals.

Vegetative Propagation: This form of asexual reproduction is generally seen in plants, where a plant can grow a shoot. This shoot, in turn, has the ability to grow into a new organism.

They are

i. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION. This takes only one organism to reproduce its kind or another offspring.

Asexual reproduction of roses by stem cuttings is probably the simplest method of propagating roses.

Most old roses, English roses, miniatures and some rootstocks are commonly propagated by cuttings because they can easily form roots and, further, they grow vigorously on their own roots.

Some hybrid teas (cut roses) and floribundas can also grow vigorously on their own roots, although they are often propagated by grafting on to different rootstocks.

Every year, millions of roses are propagated by cuttings to support the needs of different sectors, like the cut-rose flower sector

ii. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION. This process of reproduction involves two organism coming together for the purpose reproduction.

  1. ADAPTATION. This is simply the way living thing interact with their environment. Or better known as survival process of living things.
  2. DEATH. All living thing must die. Which means they are limited to a certain number of years to live before they die.
  1. COMPETITION. This is the ability of living thing to struggle or compete for life necessities in order to survive. Living things compete for food, water, air, space, mates and light.
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Asexual reproduction in sponges may be simple or complex. On one extreme, clonal development of separate, independently functioning sponges can take place through fragmentation.

The plastic nature of sponge cells makes it possible for even very small pieces to develop into active, fully functional sponges. Propagation in this fashion occurs commonly in some habitats

On the other extreme, most freshwater sponges typically form gemmules in a complex process of de-differentiation in which the structures of the active sponge regress into a mass of cells

differences between living things and non living

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  • Fragmentation: In some multicellular organisms such as Spirogyra, asexual reproduction occurs through fragmentation. Here, the parent body divides fragments, which develops into a new individual.

  • Budding: Some organisms reproduce by budding, where buds develop on the parent body. Each new bud develops into a new organism. Example for this is Hydra.

  • Sporogenesis: Some organisms produce reproductive cells called spores. These spores grow into new organisms. The spores can spread through wind or through other animals.

  • Vegetative Propagation: This form of asexual reproduction is generally seen in plants, where a plant can grow a shoot. This shoot, in turn, has the ability to grow into a new organism.

16. CROP ROTATION

Living organisms are entities that exhibit the characteristics of life. These characteristics typically include:

Cellular organization: Living organisms are composed of cells, which are the basic structural and functional units of life. They may be unicellular (consisting of a single cell) or multicellular (composed of multiple cells).

Metabolism: Living organisms carry out chemical reactions to obtain energy from their environment and use it to perform various functions. This energy is usually derived from the consumption of nutrients or sunlight in the case of autotrophic organisms.

Homeostasis: Organisms have the ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment despite changes in the external environment. They regulate factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient levels to ensure proper functioning.

Growth and development: Living organisms can grow and increase in size over time. They also undergo developmental processes, such as cell division and differentiation, leading to the formation of specialized tissues and organs.

Reproduction: Living organisms have the ability to produce offspring, either through asexual reproduction (where offspring are genetically identical to the parent) or sexual reproduction (where offspring inherit genetic material from two parents).

Response to stimuli: Organisms can detect and respond to changes in their environment. They possess sensory systems that enable them to perceive and react to various stimuli, such as light, heat, sound, or chemical signals.

Adaptation: Living organisms have the capacity to adapt to their environment over generations through the process of evolution. They can undergo genetic changes that enhance their survival and reproductive success in specific conditions.

These characteristics collectively define life and are observed in a wide range of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, animals, and humans.

Living organisms are entities that exhibit the characteristics of life. These characteristics include organization, metabolism, growth, adaptation, response to stimuli, reproduction, and the ability to maintain homeostasis. Living organisms can be found in various forms, ranging from microscopic single-celled organisms to complex multicellular organisms.

Living organisms are composed of cells, which are the basic structural and functional units of life. They can be classified into two broad categories: prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Prokaryotes, such as bacteria, lack a distinct nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotes, including plants, animals, fungi, and protists, have a well-defined nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

Living organisms can be further classified into different kingdoms, such as Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, and Monera (now split into Bacteria and Archaea). Each kingdom encompasses a wide variety of species with diverse characteristics and adaptations.

Living organisms interact with their environment and other organisms, forming complex ecosystems. They obtain energy through various means, including photosynthesis (in plants and some bacteria) or consumption of other organisms (in animals). They also have the ability to respond to stimuli in their environment and adapt to changes over time through processes such as natural selection.

Reproduction is a fundamental aspect of living

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