living things and non-living things

LIVING THINGS AND NON-LIVING THINGS, There are only two categories of things on earth, they are living thing and non-living thing. Living thing includes plants and animals. Non-living thing are those things that doesn’t have life in them.
Examples of living thing includes man, rabbit, dogs, monkeys, lizards, cattle and grasses/weeds etc, while non-living thing are tables, chairs, iron, glass, plates etc.

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS

ALL LIVING THING ARE DISTINGUISHED FROM NON-LIVING THINGS BY A WHOLE LOT OF DIFFERENCES. This distinguishing factors are what is known as the characteristics of living things Living thing are different from non-living thing in the following ways:
Living things can eat while non-living things cannot eat food

Living organisms can move while non-living things cannot move anywhere.
Living organisms can grow while non-living thing cannot grow.
. Living organisms can breathe in air while non-living thing cannot.
Living thing can reproduce while non-Living organisms cannot reproduce.
Living organisms have feelings, they can feel happy, sad or hurt while non-
Living organisms do not have any feelings.

living things, abortive transduction

So the following are generally considered as the characteristics of living things.

  1. MOVEMENT: movement is defined as the ability of an organism, either in part or whole from place to place in search of food or comfort, reproduction and as a means of escape from danger. Generally most animal can move from place to place in search of food, while most plant can only move part of their body in response to stimuli unless for a few microscopic plants which are capable of complete movement.
  2. NUTRITION.

Nutrition is defined as the ability of living things or organism to feed. The major reason for feeding in living things is to enable them carry out life process like growth, reproduction, respiration and movement. Although most green plants can manufacture their own food through a process known as photosynthesis, known also as autotrophic nor holophytic nutrition types of plants

cannot manufacture their own food hence depends on food manufactured by plants, and this type of feeding is known as heterotrophic or holozoic nutrition.

  1. RESPIRATION. Respiration is defined as the exchange of gases between organisms and their environment. The main purpose of respiration is to break down/burn down or oxidize food substances in order to release energy that is used for all their life processes.
  1. EXCRETION.

Excretion is defined as the removal of metabolic wastes from the body of any living thing. The purpose of excretion is to remove the metabolic waste products from the system, e.g. water and carbon dioxide in animals, which are toxic to the body.
So the process of getting rid of these waste materials from the body is called excretion.

  1. IRRITABILITY. Irritability is defined as the ability of an organism to respond to stimuli. All living things exhibit sensitivity in order to enable them survive in their environment. In clear terms, stimuli means the ability of any living thing to respond to changes that occurs within their environment.
  2. GROWTH. Growth is defined as the irreversible or permanent increase in size, mass, or weight of an organism. It is most known as the increase or addition living proton plasmic materials within the cell of the organism. The purpose of growth is to enable the organism to repair or rebuild worn out tissues in their body..
  3. REPRODUCTION. This is defined as the ability of living organism to produce or give birth to offspring or young ones after its kind in order to enable continuity of life. So in practical terms, reproduction occurs in two forms.
  4. Fragmentation: In some multicellular organisms such as Spirogyra, asexual reproduction occurs through fragmentation. Here, the parent body divides fragments, which develops into a new individual.

  5. Budding: Some organisms reproduce by budding, where buds develop on the parent body. Each new bud develops into a new organism. Example for this is Hydra.

  6. Sporogenesis: Some organisms produce reproductive cells called spores. These spores grow into new organisms. The spores can spread through wind or through other animals.

  7. Vegetative Propagation: This form of asexual reproduction is generally seen in plants, where a plant can grow a shoot. This shoot, in turn, has the ability to grow into a new organism.

They are

i. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION. This takes only one organism to reproduce its kind or another offspring.

Asexual reproduction of roses by stem cuttings is probably the simplest method of propagating roses. Most old roses, English roses, miniatures and some rootstocks are commonly propagated by cuttings because they can easily form roots and, further, they grow vigorously on their own roots. Some hybrid teas (cut roses) and floribundas can also grow vigorously on their own roots, although they are often propagated by grafting on to different rootstocks. Every year, millions of roses are propagated by cuttings to support the needs of different sectors, like the cut-rose flower sector

ii. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION. This process of reproduction involves two organism coming together for the purpose reproduction.

  1. ADAPTATION. This is simply the way living thing interact with their environment. Or better known as survival process of living things.
  2. DEATH. All living thing must die. Which means they are limited to a certain number of years to live before they die.
  3. COMPETITION. This is the ability of living thing to struggle or compete for life necessities in order to survive. Living things compete for food, water, air, space, mates and light.
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Asexual reproduction in sponges may be simple or complex. On one extreme, clonal development of separate, independently functioning sponges can take place through fragmentation. The plastic nature of sponge cells makes it possible for even very small pieces to develop into active, fully functional sponges. Propagation in this fashion occurs commonly in some habitats

On the other extreme, most freshwater sponges typically form gemmules in a complex process of de-differentiation in which the structures of the active sponge regress into a mass of cells

differences between living things and non living

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  • Fragmentation: In some multicellular organisms such as Spirogyra, asexual reproduction occurs through fragmentation. Here, the parent body divides fragments, which develops into a new individual.

  • Budding: Some organisms reproduce by budding, where buds develop on the parent body. Each new bud develops into a new organism. Example for this is Hydra.

  • Sporogenesis: Some organisms produce reproductive cells called spores. These spores grow into new organisms. The spores can spread through wind or through other animals.

  • Vegetative Propagation: This form of asexual reproduction is generally seen in plants, where a plant can grow a shoot. This shoot, in turn, has the ability to grow into a new organism.

16. CROP ROTATION

Meaning of commerce

Meaning of commerce. Commerce can be defined as all activities involved in the distribution of goods and services. To explain the word commerce, we can say commerce is any business activity.  It also known as buying and selling of goods and services. Sometimes commerce is confused with economics but they are quite different from each other. Economics is the study of human behavior in relation to how he gets his resources and how he uses it to satisfy his numerous wants.

How can we differentiate the meaning of commerce from economics?

To understand the meaning of commerce you have to first know the meaning of economics. The truth is commerce is a sub-course in economics. Since it is a branch of production, which the one aspect of production of goods is how to market the produced goods and services to end users or consumers.

Technically or in reality, commerce is a branch of production while production is a branch of economics.

Meaning of commerce in relation to production

Commerce in real time is a sub branch of production concerned with the distribution of produced goods and services so that the produced goods and services will eventually reach the final consumers. So the scope or meaning of commerce is that it covers all about trade and aids to trade. Which means commerce is all about trade and every activity carried out to facilitate trade.

Production in relation to the meaning of commerce

As stated earlier, the most important meaning of commerce is the production can only be said to be complete if the produced goods and series reached the final consumer and this where the distribution of goods and services comes in. production process has three major activities, which are production, exchange and consumption.

HOW COMMERCE DOES DIFFERS FROM ECONOMICS?

Commerce is said to be different from economics as commerce focuses only the exchange part of production. So in a commercial view, exchange would majorly concern itself with transfer or distribution of finished goods and services from their producers so commerce is the practical aspect of trade and how to trade.

CAPITAL FORMATION OR ACCUMULATION

Meaning: Capital formation or capital accumulation refers to increasing a country’s stock of real capital. That is, it refers to increasing the net investment in form of fixed assets.

For a country to be able to accumulate more capital, there must be increase in savings and a reduction in consumption of consumer goods. The rate of economic development of any country is directly related to the rate of capital formation. In most advanced countries like Britain, Japan and the United States of America, stocks of capital are high as a result of high rate of capital formation whereas in many developing countries of the world, there is a low rate of capital accumulation as a result of low per capita income and low savings, which results in what is termed vicious circle of poverty.

 

Causes of low capital formation in West African countries

The causes of low capital formation in West African countries include:

  1. Existence of a vicious circle of poverty: The existence of low income results in low savings and in turn results in a shortage of capital for investment, which results in low investment. Low investment leads to low, output, and eventually to low income. The low income result again to low savings and the vicious circle continues.
  2. Wasteful expenditure: Many governments in West African countries are involved in wasteful expenditure as they embark on prestigious but productive ventures thereby resulting low capital formation
  3. Inequitable distribution of income:In many West African countries, only individuals are rich while thepoor. Even the few rich ones spend their money on prestigious projects which are on-productive and these generally give rise to low capital formation.
  4. Higher propensity to consume: In many West African countries, the propensity to consume by the people is higher than the propensity to save. There is a high taste for imported goods, e.g. cars, television, rice and clothing materials. This high propensity to consume results in low savings and investment.

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