Areas of Specialization in Agriculture
The following are the different areas.which one can specialize in the study of agriculture:
What are the areas of agriculture?
This deals with the study of the soil. It has to do with knowing the nature and types or classes of the soil, how to prepare the soil for crop production and managing the soil in a way that will enhance high yield of crops. A person that studied soil science is called soil scientist.
3. Crop Science/Agronomy
This area deals with the study of crops, it is concerned with knowing the different kinds of crops and their varieties, the of cultivating them, what they require to grow and produce This area is closely connected with soil science hence universities prefer to use the term agronomy to include soil science and crop science. The agronomist is one who is specialized in crop science.
4. Agricultural Education
This is the study and teaching of agriculture in schools. People who teach agricultural science in schools and colleges are called Agricultural Educators or Agricultural Science Teachers. In the universities or other higher institutions, they are called Agricultural Lecturers.
WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
16. CROP ROTATION
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. <ahref=”https: www.apsnet.org=”” edcenter=”” disandpath=”” fungalbasidio=”” pdlessons=”” pages=”” coffeerust.aspx”=””>COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM
77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
115. MAMMARY GLAND
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM
PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION
127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
133. PROTEIN FATS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
5. Agricultural Extension
6. Agricultural Economics
Agriculture is a business. .This means that it must be run in a way that profit will always come from it. Agricultural Economics is therefore concerned with the study of how agriculture can be run so that it will be a profitable business.
reproduce, requirement, how to take proper care of the animals so that they would have good conditions favourable for high productivity.
This deals with the science and art of growing:
(b) Vegetables (Olericulture)
(c) Ornamental plants or flowers (Floriculture).
A person that specializes in horticulture is called Horticulturist.
This is that branch of agriculture that deals with the control and management of forests and forest resources. A forest represents an area of land which is mainly covered_ with trees along with other plant species.
The rearing of fishes and other aquatic organisms in a body of water is termed fishery. Fishery as a course/subject in agriculture studies the different kinds of fishes and other aquatic organisms, how they are reared, captured, preserved and used. Fishery matters are handled by fishery
officers, trained in fishery.
10. Veterinary Medicine
This is the area that studies the diseases and pests -of farm animals. The veterinarian is one who helps in vaccinating farm animals against diseases and treat them when they are sick. They are often called Veterinary doctors.
11. Agricultural Engineering
This is concerned with the study of farm machineries and their uses. It also includes the maintenance of those machines and implements used on the farm, as well as construction, use and maintenance of farm structures and buildings. A specialist in this area is called Agricultural Engineer.
Other areas include Agricultural Journalism, Agricultural Biology, General Agriculture, Agricultural Biochemistry and Nutrition, etc,
Agriculture can be studied in any of the following levels of institution:
1. Schools of Agriculture and polytechnics
These offer a two-year course leading to the award of the national Diploma (N.D.) some offer a further two-year course leading to the award of Higher National Diploma (H.N.D).
These institutions train agricultural science teachers for a three year duration after which they are awarded the Nigeria Certificate of Education (N.C.E.).
Different universities have their faculties of agriculture when different courses are offered leading to the award of any of the following:
(a) B.Sc ( Agric)
(b) B. Agric~
Graduates from the different schools and different courses may become any of the following:
(1) Agricultural Officers in Ministries of Agriculture.
(2) Research Officers in Research Stations.
(3) Teachers in secondary schools.
(4) Teachers/Lecturers in -higher institutions.
(5) Managers in commercial farms.
(6) Agricultural loans officers in Banks ,
(7) Veterinary doctors.
(8) Public Relations Officers in large Agro-industries or farms.
(9) Agricultural journalists
(10) Agricultural businessmen f
(11) Forestry officers. .
(12) Fishery officers.
It has been mentioned earlier in this unit that agriculture is both academic and vocational.
What has been discussed above is the academic and vocational aspect of agriculture.
On the vocational side, a person who studied agriculture’ can engage in any of the following vocations or occupations:
a) Arable crops production: This is concerned with the cultivation of food crops such as cereals, tubers, plantains* and banana, etc.
(b)Cash crops production: This includes the cultivation of crops such as cotton, oil palm, rubber, cocoa, etc.
(c) Vegetables production
(d) Production of ornamental plants and landscape development and beautification.
(e) Livestock production: This includes the rearing of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits or poultry. . (g) Fishery.,
(h) Agricultural business (trading on farm produce and farm equipment or inputs
13.3 Advantages of choosing farming as a career
Many people often think that agriculture means farming. T his is not entirely true. As it has been seen in the preceding discussions, agriculture is academic, it is a business and it is a vocation or an occupation. Farming comes under vocation or occupation in agriculture.
Agriculture is mainly concerned with the cultivation of crops and the rearing of animals on the farm. Farming therefore is an important component or sub-sector of agriculture because it is the source of food for mankind. AH other aspects of agriculture are geared towards improving farming and hence increasing available food for human consumption. Therefore, agriculture cam toe regarded as the mother of all professions, occupations or businesses.
If agriculture flourishes, every other aspect of human endeavour will flourish, but if the land is allowed to lie fallow, every other thing is at a standstill.
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