WHAT IS SYMBIOSIS AND COMMENSALISM
Symbiosis is a close association between two organisms in which the two of them benefits from the association. Symbiosis is therefore a beneficial association where each member is called a SYMBIONT
EXAMPLES OF SYMBIOTIC ASSOCIATION
1. alga and fungus in lichen:
Lichen is made up of two organisms, namely a fungus and a green alga which lives in a close relationship or association
In this association, the alga benefits because the fungus encloses and protects it from physical damage and from drying up. The alga uses some of the water absorbed by the fungus while the fungus benefits by using part of the food manufactured by the green alga
PROTOZOA IN THE INTESTINE OF TERMITES
NITROGEN FIXATION BACTERIA IN THE ROOT NODULES OF LEGUMINOUS PLANTS
A bacterium called rhizobium leguminosarium living in the root nodules of leguminous plants obtain nutrients from the cells of the host plant, grow and reproduce there. In return, the rhizobium fixes nitrogen directly into the plant from the atmosphere, thereby increasing the nitrogen requirement of leguminous plants
BACTERIA IN THE RUMEN OF RUMINANTS
Bacteria and other protozoa n the rumen of ruminant animals like cattle, goats and sheep help the ruminant to digest cellulose to sugars, synthesize amino acids and other vitamins from other substances while ruminant in turn provide protection, shelter and food for the bacteria
FLOWERS AND INSECTS
What is commensalism?
Commensalism is a relationship or association between two organisms of different species, in which one, the commensal, benefits while the other, the host, is not adversely affected in any way. This form of relationship between two organisms has no known effects on the each of the organisms involved.
It is simply stated that commensalism is an association between two organisms in which one of the organism known as the commensal benefits from the union and the other is harmed or affected in any way.
EXAMPLES OF COMMENSALISM
remora fish and shark
The remora fish attaches itself to the body of a shark which carries it about. The remora fish feeds on the food particles left over by the shark, by so doing the remora obtains food, protection and shelter from the shark whereas the shark is neither harmed nor benefitted from the association.
oyster and crab
The habitation of a crab is in the Oyster shell in which case the crab is protected yet no harm is done to the Oyster
man and intestinal bacteria
Some bacteria in the large intestine of man feeds on digested food there. The bacteria receive food and protection from the man whereas man neither gains nor suffers any disadvantage from the presence of the bacteria
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