SYMBIOSIS AND COMMENSALISM TYPE OF ASSOCIATION AND RELATIONSHIP

WHAT IS SYMBIOSIS AND COMMENSALISM?

SYMBIOSIS
Symbiosis is a close association between two organisms in which the two of them benefits from the association. Symbiosis is therefore a beneficial association where each member is called a SYMBIONT

EXAMPLES OF SYMBIOTIC ASSOCIATION

  1. alga and fungus in lichen:
    Lichen is made up of two organisms, namely a fungus and a green alga which lives in a close relationship or association
    In this association, the alga benefits because the fungus encloses and protects it from physical damage and from drying up. The alga uses some of the water absorbed by the fungus while the fungus benefits by using part of the food manufactured by the green alga

PROTOZOA IN THE INTESTINE OF TERMITES

The protozoa help the termite which is a biting and chewing insect to digest the cellulose in the food while protozoa are protected by the termites

heterotrophic nutrition
heterotrophic organisms

3.

NITROGEN FIXATION BACTERIA IN THE ROOT NODULES OF LEGUMINOUS PLANTS

A bacterium called rhizobium leguminosarium living in the root nodules of leguminous plants obtain nutrients from the cells of the host plant, grow and reproduce there. In return, the rhizobium fixes nitrogen directly into the plant from the atmosphere, thereby increasing the nitrogen requirement of leguminous plants

BACTERIA IN THE RUMEN OF RUMINANTS

Bacteria and other protozoa n the rumen of ruminant animals like cattle, goats and sheep help the ruminant to digest cellulose to sugars, synthesize amino acids and other vitamins from other substances while ruminant in turn provide protection, shelter and food for the bacteria

FLOWERS AND INSECTS

Insects obtain food from flowers in the form of pollen and nectars while in turn, the insects brings about cross-pollination I the plant they visit, thus enabling plants to produce sexually

 WHAT IS COMMENSALISM TYPE OF ASSOCIATION?

What is commensalism?
Commensalism is a relationship or association between two organisms of different species, in which one, the commensal, benefits while the other, the host, is not adversely affected in any way. This form of relationship between two organisms has no known effects on the each of the organisms involved.
It is simply stated that commensalism is an association between two organisms in which one of the organism known as the commensal benefits from the union and the other is harmed or affected in any way.

EXAMPLES OF COMMENSALISM ASSOCIATION

remora fish and shark

The remora fish attaches itself to the body of a shark which carries it about. The remora fish feeds on the food particles left over by the shark, by so doing the remora obtains food, protection and shelter from the shark whereas the shark is neither harmed nor benefitted from the association.

2.

oyster and crab type of relationship

The habitation of a crab is in the Oyster shell in which case the crab is protected yet no harm is done to the Oyster

3.

man and intestinal bacteria type of commensalism relationship

Some bacteria in the large intestine of man feeds on digested food there. The bacteria receive food and protection from the man whereas man neither gains nor suffers any disadvantage from the presence of the bacteria

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WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

  1. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
    19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
    20. INCUBATORS
    21. MILKING MACHINE
    22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
    23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
    24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
    25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
    26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
    27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
    28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
    29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
    30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
    31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
    32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
    33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
    34. OIL PALM
    35. USES OF PALM OIL
    36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
    37. COCOA

38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
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