types of breeding

Breeding is the process of producing offspring with desired traits by controlled mating of selected parents. It is an important tool for improving the genetic quality of plants and animals used in agriculture, food production, and other industries. Breeding involves selecting parents with desired characteristics and crossing them to produce offspring that inherit these traits. In this blog post, we will discuss the types of breeding, their importance, and examples of breeding in different industries.

Types of breeding:

  1. Selective breeding: It is the process of selecting organisms with desirable traits and breeding them to produce offspring with those traits. Selective breeding is commonly used in agriculture to produce crops and livestock with improved traits such as disease resistance, higher yield, and better taste.
  2. Crossbreeding: It is the process of breeding two different breeds of the same species to produce offspring with desired traits. Crossbreeding is often used to create new breeds that combine the best traits of both parent breeds. For example, crossing a Holstein cow with a Jersey cow produces a crossbred cow that has higher milk production than either parent breed.
  3. Hybrid breeding: It is the process of breeding two different species to produce a hybrid offspring. Hybrid breeding is often used in plant breeding to create new varieties with desirable traits such as higher yield, disease resistance, and drought tolerance. For example, the Tangelo fruit is a hybrid of a tangerine and a grapefruit.

Importance of breeding:

Breeding plays a crucial role in improving the quality and quantity of food production, increasing the profitability of the agriculture industry, and addressing environmental challenges. Some of the important benefits of breeding are:

  1. Improved productivity: Breeding can be used to develop crops and livestock that are more productive and efficient, leading to higher yields and increased profitability.
  2. Disease resistance: Breeding can be used to develop plants and animals with improved resistance to pests, diseases, and environmental stresses, reducing the need for harmful pesticides and herbicides.
  3. Environmental sustainability: Breeding can be used to develop plants that are better adapted to local conditions, reducing the need for irrigation, fertilizer, and other inputs that can be harmful to the environment.

Examples of breeding:

  1. Wheat breeding: Wheat is one of the most important staple crops in the world, and breeding has played a crucial role in improving its yield, disease resistance, and nutritional value. For example, the development of high-yield wheat varieties during the Green Revolution led to a significant increase in global food production.
  2. Dairy cattle breeding: Selective breeding and crossbreeding have been used to develop dairy cattle that produce higher milk yields, have better disease resistance, and are more efficient at converting feed into milk.
  3. Hybrid seed production: Hybrid breeding is widely used in plant breeding to produce hybrid seeds that have improved yield, disease resistance, and other desirable traits. For example, hybrid corn seeds are widely used in the United States, and have significantly improved corn yields.

artificial breeding

Artificial breeding is the process of selectively breeding animals or plants to achieve desired traits or characteristics. This is done by controlling the reproduction of the organisms through techniques such as artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer.

Artificial breeding can be used in a variety of applications, such as improving the genetics of livestock for meat or dairy production, breeding endangered species to increase their population, or developing new plant varieties with desirable traits such as disease resistance or higher yield.

One of the main advantages of artificial breeding is that it allows for greater control over the breeding process, which can result in more consistent and predictable outcomes. This can be especially important in agriculture, where farmers may want to produce animals or crops with specific traits that are highly valued in the marketplace.

However, artificial breeding can also be controversial, especially when it involves genetic engineering or the manipulation of the natural breeding process. Critics argue that artificial breeding can lead to the loss of genetic diversity and may have unintended consequences for the health and welfare of the animals or plants involved.

In conclusion, breeding is an important tool for improving the genetic quality of plants and animals used in agriculture, food production, and other industries. By using selective breeding, crossbreeding, and hybrid breeding, we can produce crops and livestock that are more productive, disease-resistant, and environmentally sustainable. With the growing demand for food and the challenges posed by climate change, breeding will continue to play a crucial role in ensuring a sustainable and secure food supply.

Breeding of Hybridization

Hybridization is a method by which an offspring is produced through the crossing of two different plant varieties of the same species.

In other words, it refers to the development of plants by combining inherited qualities of one plant with that of another through the fertilization of female with male gametes.


: This is the pollination and fertilization of closely related crop plants in order to retain certain desirable characteristics. This can lead to pure breed or pure line.

Pure line

: A plant which has been self-fertilized or crossed continuously with closely related species (inbred) for many generations, so that the desirable qualities it possesses do not change from generation to generation, is called a pure line. Pure line will always reproduce itself with great precision.

Cross breeding process

: This is the pollination and fertilization of unrelated crop plants belonging to different breeds. This results in the production of an offspring which is superior to the average performance of the parents. This is called hybrid vigour “heterosis”.


(i) breeding can produce a superior offspring resulting in hybrid vigour or heterosis (cross breeding)
(ii) Progency grows more rapidly (cross breeding)
(iii) Production of pure line (in-breeding).
(iv) Offspring can withstand variations of environment (cross breeding)


(i) breeding could lead to “inbreeding depression”, which is the depression or loss in vigour and performance of offspring (in-breeding)
(ii) There is a drop in production or yield of crops in terms of quantity and quality (in-breeding)
(iii) breeding may lead to poor or low resistance to disease attack (in-breeding)

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Productivity of crops can be achieved through a combination of methods which include(1) Crop Improvement Methods: As discussed earlier, crops can be improved through introduction, selection and hybridization.
(ii) Proper Timing of Planting: Crops should be grown at the right time to avoid high temperature, inadequate rainfall or abundance of pests and diseases during growth.
(iii) Adoption of Better Cultivation Methods: The adoption of better methods of cultivation like crop rotation which adds nutrients to soil, prevents erosion, pests and diseases outbreak and helps to increase yield.

(iv) Use of Manures and Fertilizers: The use of manure like farm yard compost and green manure in combination with the use of fertilizers helps to add nutrients to soil and promotes good growth of crops.
(v) Control of Pests of Crops: The control of pests of crops which I cause reduction in yield and growth can help in the improvement of crops.

(vi) Control of Diseases of Crops: Diseases also cause a reduction in growth and productivity of crops. Where they are adequately prevented, it will lead to improvement of such crops.
(vii) Use of Resistant Varieties: Some varieties of crops are capable of resisting disease’s attack and can mature early thereby increasing the yield of crops.

(viii) Use of good crop varieties: There are some varieties of crops which naturally will grow well in different environmental conditions. Such crops do help to increase the overall production of such crops

  1. how companies raises funds for expansion



What is land in economics?

Land in economics does not only include land surface of the earth but all other free gifts of nature or natural resources like forest, mineral resources, rivers, oceans and atmosphere. Unlike other ction, the supply of land is limited. The reward for land is rent.

Characteristics or features of land

  • Land is immobile: Land cannot be moved from one geographical location to another
  • The supply of land is fixed: It is practically impossible for man to increase the quantity of land.
  • Land is a free gift: Land is given freely by nature.
  • Land is subject to diminishing returns: When a piece of land is frequently bought under cultivation, it becomes less productive
  • Variability: The quality and value of land varies from one place to another as some areas of land are more fertile than others
  • Rent: The reward for land is classified as rent
  • Land has no cost of production: No cost was involved in bringing land into existence
  • Land is heterogeneous: No two parcels of land are the same in value or in other characteristics

Importance and uses of land

  1. Farming purposes: Land is used for the cultivation of both food and cash crops, e.g maize, yam and cocoa. Water provides irrigation for farming activities in dry areas.
  2. Livestock purpose: and is also used for livestock production (i.e. rearing of animals), e.g. cattle, sheep, goat and poultry
  3. Fishery purposes: Land is used for fishery in rivers, seas and oceans. Fish ponds are also developed
  4. Wild life purposes: Land is used for wildlife conservation, e.g. game reserves and national parks
  5. As collateral security: Land with Certificate of Occupancy (C of O) is used widely as collateral to secure loans from banks, especially in urban centres
  6. Construction purposes: Land is used for construction purposes, e.g. roads, airports and railway. Sand, stone, gravel and granite are raw materials used for building and road construction
  7. Social or recreational purpose: Land can also be used for social or recreational purposes, e.g. stadia, schools, markets and cemeterie
  8. Residential buildings: Residential buildings and housing estates are sited on land
  9. For industrial buildings: Industrial buildings are also cited on lan
  10. Sources of minerals: Land is the source of minerals like limestone, gold, tin and petroleum, which can serve for transportation of people and goods from one place to another


law of diminishing returns states that as successive units of a variable factor (e.g. land), output will increase at first but it will get to a point at which the addition of one more unit of the variable factor will result in less additional units of output

Explain the law of diminishing return

The law of diminishing returns, sometimes called the law of variable proportions, is applicable to both the agricultural and industrial sectors that use both the fixed and variable factors of production.

 Application of the law of diminishing return

The law of diminishing returns can be illustrated using. the table representing the quantity of yam produced by Mr. Kola Balogun in his one hectare farm.

The different types or forms of capital include the following:

  1. Fixed capital: These are assets which are not used up in the course of production. Fixed assets include those durable assets of a business that can last for a very long time. These assets or capital do not change their form in the process of production. Examples of fixed capital are land, buildings, tools, motor vehicles, plants and machinery
  2. Circulatory or working capital: These are assets which are used up in the course of production. These consist of capital goods which either change their form or are used up in the process of production. Examples of working capital include raw materials, water and fuel.
  3. Current or liquid capital: Current capital is the type of capital that are required for the day-to-day running of productive activities. They are also changed from one form to another. Examples are finished goods and money
  4. Social capital: This includes those forms of capital or assets provided by the government that aid production. Examples of social capital are amenities provided by the government which are roads, electricity, water and telephones. These amenities, when they are readily available, aid the process of production.