types of breeding and their importance to production

Breeding of Hybridization

Hybridization is a method by which an offspring is produced through the crossing of two different plant varieties of the same species.

In other words, it refers to the development of plants by combining inherited qualities of one plant with that of another through the fertilization of female with male gametes.

TYPES OF BREEDING

(i)

In-breeding

: This is the pollination and fertilization of closely related crop plants in order to retain certain desirable characteristics. This can lead to pure breed or pure line.
(ii)

Pure line

: A plant which has been self-fertilized or crossed continuously with closely related species (inbred) for many generations, so that the desirable qualities it possesses do not change from generation to generation, is called a pure line. Pure line will always reproduce itself with great precision.

Cross breeding process

: This is the pollination and fertilization of unrelated crop plants belonging to different breeds. This results in the production of an offspring which is superior to the average performance of the parents. This is called hybrid vigour “heterosis”.

ADVANTAGES OF BREEDING

(i) breeding can produce a superior offspring resulting in hybrid vigour or heterosis (cross breeding)
(ii) Progency grows more rapidly (cross breeding)
(iii) Production of pure line (in-breeding).
(iv) Offspring can withstand variations of environment (cross breeding)

DISADVANTAGES OF BREEDING

(i) breeding could lead to “inbreeding depression”, which is the depression or loss in vigour and performance of offspring (in-breeding)
(ii) There is a drop in production or yield of crops in terms of quantity and quality (in-breeding)
(iii) breeding may lead to poor or low resistance to disease attack (in-breeding)

  1. h

Productivity of crops can be achieved through a combination of methods which include

:
(1) Crop Improvement Methods: As discussed earlier, crops can be improved through introduction, selection and hybridization.
(ii) Proper Timing of Planting: Crops should be grown at the right time to avoid high temperature, inadequate rainfall or abundance of pests and diseases during growth.
(iii) Adoption of Better Cultivation Methods: The adoption of better methods of cultivation like crop rotation which adds nutrients to soil, prevents erosion, pests and diseases outbreak and helps to increase yield.

(iv) Use of Manures and Fertilizers: The use of manure like farm yard compost and green manure in combination with the use of fertilizers helps to add nutrients to soil and promotes good growth of crops.
(v) Control of Pests of Crops: The control of pests of crops which I cause reduction in yield and growth can help in the improvement of crops.

(vi) Control of Diseases of Crops: Diseases also cause a reduction in growth and productivity of crops. Where they are adequately prevented, it will lead to improvement of such crops.
(vii) Use of Resistant Varieties: Some varieties of crops are capable of resisting disease’s attack and can mature early thereby increasing the yield of crops.

(viii) Use of good crop varieties: There are some varieties of crops which naturally will grow well in different environmental conditions. Such crops do help to increase the overall production of such crops

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WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

  1. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
    19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
    20. INCUBATORSt
  1. MAIZE SMUT
  2. RICE BLAST
  3. MAIZE RUST
  4. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
  5. COW-PEA MOSAIC
  6. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE

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