plantain cultivation, an overview

plantain cultivation and cultural practices. 

plantain botanically known as Musa Sp is a type of crop grown using plantain suckers. plantain cultivation can well be practised in areas of high rainfall.

in some countries, plantain or bananas are cultivated for export in order to earn foreign exchange. this major food crop serves as a staple food source in most African states or nations.

the cultivation of plantain strives very well in the rainforest belt. banana and plantain are biennial crops.

cultural practices in the cultivation of plantain and banana

plantain farming include improved varieties of planting materials called suckers; soil fertility; planting spacing know-how; manure application, and most importantly,

water application are some of the key points one has to learn about planting plantain

land preparation in the cultivation of plantain and banana

Land Preparation: Clearing of the land to plant plantain is followed by stumping and making of ridges or heaps.

Many farmers might have tried and failed in plantain farming, but with the necessary requirements in place, the plantain cultivation business (check out types business you can do here) can prove to be very lucrative and easy to start up. It is equally done in an integrated system.

Types of plantain
 
\”Two groups of plantains are thought to have a common origin:
 
the horn plantain and the French plantain.
Both types grow in India, Africa, Egypt, and tropical America.
 
The French plantains also occur in Indonesia and the islands of the Pacific.\”
basic requirements for the cultivation of plantain and banana

Requirements of successful plantain farming include improved varieties of planting materials called suckers;

soil fertility;

planting spacing know-how;

manure application, and most importantly, water application.

cultural practices in the cultivation of plantain and banana

Land Preparation: Clearing of the land which is followed by stumping and making of ridges or heaps. It can also be done mechanically through ploughing, harrowing and ridging.

varieties of plantain and banana

Varieties/Cultivars of banana and planting
Gross Michel; Cavendish (dwarf); red banana; canary banana.

Climatic and soil requirements for plantain/banana cultivation

Banana/plantain

plant requires a temperature of 21oC- 25°C, rainfall of l5Ocm – 200cm per annum and well-drained, rich, loamy soil. if plantain is cultivated in such areas as listed above, the plantain will yield quality produce

Planting Materials for banana/plantain cultivation

: These are corm (or bits), peeper suckers, sword suckers and maiden suckers.

Propagation/planting Date plantain cultivation

: Banana is propagated by vegetative means any time from April to September. Dig a hole and plant the sucker with a ball of earth.

 

The hole should be 60cm x 60cm. The holes are filled with soil(soil management) mixed with organic matter.
Spacing: 4m x 4m

Cultural Practices for the Cultivation of Banana/plantain

(i) Weeding plantain plantation: This should be done regularly to prevent competition with crops for nutrients.

(ii) Mulching of plantain: This should be done to prevent evaporation.
(iii) Fertilizer Application in plantain farm: Apply Muriate of potash 25kg/ha by ring method at regular intervals.

(iv) how to Prune plantain: This should be done to avoid over-population per stand.
(v) Pests and other insects of plantain should be controlled.

 

The maturity period for plantain and banana

It matures between 12-18 months, depending on the variety.

Harvesting time of banana
A bunch of bananas is harvested when the fruit is severed from the bunch stalk by using a cutlass. At times, the pseudo-stem is cut until the tree falls

Processing and storage of banana

the fruit of plantain can be processed into chips, pounded yam-like, can be eaten raw, cooked as plantain porridge or portage

Pests of Bananas and control methods

Stem Borer:
the Larvae of some insects bore into and destroy the tissue of the plantain.

Control:
(i) Apply dieldrin dust or furadan
(ii)
Nematode:
It makes the root of banana
to grow galls or knots, leading to poor growth
Control: Use appropriate nematicide
(iii)

Rats and Monkeys affect plantain cultivation:

these eat up the matured or ripe fruits
Control:
(i) Use poison baits
(ii) Set traps
(iii) Harvest ripe fruit early

Diseases of Bananas and control methods

Panama disease: It is caused by a fungus (Fusarium oxysperum) which is spread through the soil. Symptoms include collapsing of the petiole and withering of the leaves.

how to control pests of Plantain:

(i) Use resistant varieties.
(ii) Spray with fungicide.

(2)

Leaf spot (or Sigatoka) disease of plantain:

It is caused by a fungus (Cercospora mycosis haerella) which is transmitted by air wind(airbone diseases). Symptoms: include yellow or brown chlorotic spots which later unite to form or bind lateral to parallel veins.

how to control leaf spot disease of plantain:

Spray with fungicide, e.g. Bordeaux mixture.

(iii) Bunchy top disease of plantain and banana:
this plantain disease is caused by a virus transmitted by an insect. Symptoms include stunted plants with crowded leaves having curled edges.
Control:
(i) Ensure field sanitation
(ii) Bury or burn infected plants.

 

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