FARM SURVEYING AND PLANNING
MEANING OF FARM SURVEYING
Farm surveying is defined as the process of measuring and mapping out the position, soil topography, size and boundary of an area of farmland. It can also be defined as the process by which measuring of land is made on the farm. Such measurements by tables, plans or layout are done for specific purposes.
IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEYING AND PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
Reasons why farm surveying is important include the following:
(1) Determination of size of farmland: Farm survey helps to determine the size or hecterage of farmland.
(2) For feasibility studies: Farm survey is also important or useful for the preparation of feasibility studies.
(3) Proper use of farmland: Farm survey enables farmers to make proper use of the land.
(4) Location of farm buildings: Farmers can determine where to site and locate certain buildings or structures in the farm.
(5) Planning of farmstead: Farm maps or soil maps are useful in planning the farmstead.
(6) For soil classification: Characteristics and features of the various soil units are used for soul classification.
(7) Projection of yield: The yield or productivity of farmland can be projected .
(8) For collateral security: Results of farm survey can be used as collateral for securing loan from financial institutions.
(9) Acquisition of certificate of occupancy (C of O): Farm survey facilities acquisition of certificate of occupancy (C of O).
(10) Determination of gradient of farmland: Farm survey also helps to determine the gradients of the farmland.
(11) Construction of roads: Road and others access ways can be constructed with the knowledge derived from surveying.
SOME COMMON SURVEYING EQUIPMENT/INSTRUMENTS AND USES
(7) Offset staff
(8) Beacons or pillars.
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(i) Ranging pole is made of wood or metal
(ii) It is of varying lengths e.g 18m, 2.4m, or 3.0m
(iii) It is generally circular in section, though some octagonal types are obtainable.
(iv) It is usually painted black, bright, red and white to enable it to be seen from a distance.
(v) It has a pointed end.
(i) It is used for making stations
(ii) It is also used for making straight lines
(i) It consists of a series of dumb bell-shaped links of steel wires joined together by three small rings
(ii) One gunter’s chain is normally 20.13m (66ft) in length.
(iii) It has brass handles at either side.
(iv) It is divided into 100 links so that each link is 19.8cm or 7.92 ins.
(v) A link is the distance from the middle of the central ring to the middle of the next central ring.
(vi) The chain is entirely metallic.
Precautions to be taken when chaining a farmland
(i) Pull taut chains, tapes or ropes
(ii) Avoid errors of transporting figures on papers
(iii) Equipment such as theodolite should be placed on a perfect horizontal plane.
(iv) All chains, tapes, ropes, etc must be properly alligned before taking measurement.
(v) Avoid error of parallax when reading measurements.
(vi) Make sure the chain is not faulty before use.
It is used in taking short or detailed measurement of length and breadth
(i) It is usually made of linen of fine steel sheet.
(ii) It is usually marked on one side with metric units and the other side with the imperial unit.
(iii) The tape is of various types and lengths.
(iv) The tape is normally wound in a small case from where it is unwound for use.
It is used for taking measurement of length, breadth and height.
(i) It is normally placed on a stand
(ii) It has a prism
(iii) It has a compass card marked in degrees, half degrees, minutes and seconds in a clockwise direction.
(iv) It has a straight slot.
It is used in taking bearings; it is also used in measuring angular distance.
(i) It consists of a tripod stand made of wood of lightweight metal solid or telescopic legs.
(ii) The tripod stand forms the base of the instrument
(iii) It has a lower plate which contains the graduated horizontal circle made of glass or brass
(iv) It has a spirit level which is used to define horizontal plain against which angles of the elevation or depression are measured
Function/use: It is used to measure horizontal or vertical angles or planes.
Arrow or pin
(i) This is thin pointed steel wire of about 3cm long with one end curved into a ring
(ii) A red cloth is normally attached to the ring so that it can be seen from afar.
(i) It is used during chaining for marking off chain lengths as measured
(ii) It can also be used for marking stations
(i) This is a graduated rod-3m long
(ii) A hook may be fitted at the top for the purpose of pulling a chain through a hedge
(iii) Each telescope link is 0.3m (30cm) in length
(i) It is used for taking short offset measurements
Beacon or Pillar
(i) It is made of rectangular block usually in concrete form
(ii) Marks are usually inscribed on top of the block
(iii) The beacons are always buried in the ground with marked head raised a little above the ground
(i) It is used for making off points measured
(ii) It is also used for the recognition of the measured
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General Maintenance of Surveying Instruments
(i) All instruments must be clean after use.
(ii) Keep instruments in dry and cool places
(iii) Those with metals parts should be oiled or greased or painted before they are put away for a long time
(iv) Keep instruments like farm tools away from heat and rain(water cycle) to prevent damage and rusting respectively.
(v) Replace worn-out parts
(vi) Use instruments only for the intended functions
(vii) Let competent surveyor hand and use the instruments only or as he may direct.
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IMPORTANCE OF FARM PLANNING
(i) It enables the farmer to make proper use of the land
(ii) It also ensures the proper sitting of certain buildings or structures in certain locations within the farmstead
(iii) It ensures the location of livestock buildings in relation to other farm buildings
(iv) It promotes the neatness and prevents pollution within the farmstead
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