soil and types of rock. types of rock and rock formation. what is soil and soil formation? : the uppermost part of the earth what is soil and soil formation? Meaning of soil: the uppermost part of the earth. what is soil and soil formation?
definition of soil
Meaning of soil: soil is the uppermost part of the earth that supports plants growth. It is a mixture of mineral matter from weathered rocks, organic matter, water, air and some living organism.
FORMATION AND COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
soil is formed as a result of weathering. if the soil is formed through weathering, what then is weathering?
WHAT IS WEATHERING?
weathering is the breaking down of rocks and parent materials into smaller particles through physical and chemicals processes to form soil.
what are ROCKS
GROUPS OF ROCK AND TYPES OF ROCK IN SOIL FORMATION
There are three major group of rocks based and grouped according to how they were formed. with this in mind, i can categorically say that there are three group of rocks are
- Igneous rock
- metamorphic rock and
- Sedimentary rock
each group of rock has so many types of rock classified under it. so let look at these groups of rock and their types
1. HOW IGNEOUS ROCK ARE FORMED:
an igneous rock is formed as a result of cooling down and solidification of molten magma beneath the earth’s crust.
TYPES OF IGNEOUS ROCK
Examples are Basalt and granites
2. FORMATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK AND COMPOSITION AND SOIL FORMATION:
Sedimentary rock is formed as a result of sedimentation and cementation of the deposited materials such as rock fragments, shell and others in an environment.
TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK
Examples are limestone, sandstone and gypsum
3. HOW METAMORPHIC ROCK ARE FORMED:
this formed when Igneous or sedimentary rock or both are subjected to heat action and pressure. This causes changes in the original structure.
TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK
Examples are Marble from limestone, gneiss from granite and quartzite from sandstone.
USES OF ROCK TO FORM SOIL
1. Rock is the primary material from which soil is formed
2. It supports the absorption of weights on the earth crust
3. It provides materials for road construction
4. It provides mineral nutrients for the growth of plants
5. Some rock are used in the manufacture of fertilizer and lime
6. It is a source of income to quarry industries
7. Rocks can be used to control gully erosion
8. Rocks (Gypsum) are used in the manufacture of cement
9. Rocks are used in the construction of buildings
10. Some rocks such as granite are used as grinding stone
MEANING AND IMPORTANCE OF SOIL
1. Meaning of soil: soil is the uppermost part of the earth that supports plants growth. It is a mixture of mineral matter from weathered rocks, organic matter, water, air and some living organism.
IMPORTANCE OF SOIL
i. It supports the growth of plants. It provides anchorage for the plant ii.
It provides plants with mineral nutrients
iii. It supplies water and air needed by plants and other organism living in the soil.
iv. It provides the medium on which food for man is produced.
v. It forms the foundation for the construction and building of houses
PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
Soil is formed from the breaking down of parent rocks into smaller particles.
WHAT IS WEATHERING
This the process by which rocks are broken down into smaller pieces to form soil. There are three major types of weathering, they are
1. TYPES OF WEATHERING
this is the breaking down of rocks into smaller pieces through physical means such as temperature, water, ice movement and wind.
this is the breaking down of rocks into smaller pieces through reaction such as hydrolysis, hydration, solution, carbonation and oxidation
this is the breaking down of rocks into smaller pieces by the activities of living organism, like the roots of plants causing cracks in rocks. This can also be caused by the action of man during cultivation and road construction.
COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SOIL
The soil is made up of the following
3. Organic matter
4. Living organisms , and
5. Mineral matter.
WHAT IS SOIL AIR?
The amount of in the air varies under natural condition depending on the weather and other factors such as nature of soil.
Air is important in the soil because
1. It promotes aeration.
soil aeration is the exchange carbon (IV) oxide and oxygen gases between the soil and the atmosphere.
2. Well aerated soil supplies enough oxygen for plant root respiration and growth
3. It increases organic matter decomposition and nutrient supply.
4. It improves the activities of ling organisms in the soil
HOW TO INCREASE SOIL AERATION
Soil aeration can be increased by ensuring that the amount of water in the soil is controlled. This is to allow space for air through drainage process.
Water is a major component of the soil and it is very important in plant growth.
IMPORTANCE OF SOIL WATER
I. soil water Helps the plant to maintain all the functions of the tissues
II. It regulates soil air and temperature
III. the water in the soil dissolves and make available nutrients for plants growth and use
IV. It supports the lives of micro organisms in the soil.
SOIL WATER CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS FOLLOWS
1. GRAVITATIONAL WATER:
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53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
162. ECTO PARASITES
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