Types of migration and how it affects population
Migration is defined as the movement of people from one geographical area to another, involving permanent or temporary residence or settlement.
In migration, the region where people are leaving is called the source region while the region where people are entering is called the receiving or destination region.
Types of migration
There are two major types of migration. These are emigration and immigration.
- Emigration: This is the type of migration in which people leave their own countries, i.e. movement out of a country.
- Immigration: This is the type of migration in which people enter into another country, i.e. movement into another country
Forms of migration
Migration from one place to another takes different forms. These include:
- Rural-urban migration: This is the movement of people from rural areas, village, to urban
centres like Ibadan.
- Rural-rural migration: This is movement of people from one rural to another rural area.
- Urban-rural migration: This is movement of people from one urban centres to rural areas.
- Urban-urban migration: This is movement of people from one urban centre (town or city) to another.
- International migration: This is movement of people from one country another.
- Seasonal migration: This is movement of people from one place to another at a particular season, summer holidays abroad.
Factors affecting migration
The following factors account for die migration of people from one area to another.
- Natural disasters: The occurrence natural disasters like floods, famines drought and earthquakes, could make people to migrate out of a place another.
- Physical conditions: The physic conditions of a place such as climate, soils relief may also be responsible for the migration of people, especially when such conditions are unfavourable
- Insecurity: Fear of insecurity arising from war, political instability, etc. could make people to migrate.
- Differences in economic opportunities: As a result of these, people tend to migrate to where there are more economic opportunities like jobs and business transactions.
- Changes in status: Change in status, e.g high level of education and wealth, could make people to migrate, e.g. from rural urban centres.
- Differences in social amenities: Owing to differences in the availability of water, roads and electricity, people tend move to where these amenities are present
Advantage of migration
- It reduces population pressure on agricultural land at the source region.
- It reduces population pressure on social amenities at the source region.
- It supplies migrant labour at the receiving legion.
- It ensures the flow of capital to the living region.
- It leads to the development of social amenities at the receiving region,
- It boosts markets at the receiving region,
- It promotes cultural integration, e.g. intermarriage at the receiving region.
Disadvantages of migration
- It breeds social vices like crime and armed robbery at the receiving region.
- It increases high cost of living at the receiving region.
- It leads to pressure on social amenities at me receiving region.
- It leads to the loss of able-bodied men arid youth at the source region,
- It leads to congestion in housing and transportation at the receiving region,
- It leads to decline in production at the source region.
- It leads to unemployment at the receiving region.
- It also leads to cultural disintegration at the destination region.
One of the major forms of migration that tends to create problems in all developing countries is that of rural-urban migration.
Since we recognize that this form of migration is a major problem, solutions have to be provided in order to prevent the occurrence of over population at the receiving regions. The solutions to the problems of rural-urban migration include:
- Provision of social amenities: The provision of social amenities such as water, electricity, cinemas, roads and telephones in rural areas will go a long way in reducing the rate at which youth move to urban areas.
- Transformation of traditional agriculture to modern agriculture: This will enable the youth to engage in agriculture as the system will make farming interesting.
- Establishment of industries: The establishment of industries, projects and businesses that will absorb the rural working population and reverse labour movement will go a long way in reducing rural-urban drift.
- Establishment of educational institutions: The establishment of colleges and other institutions of higher learning in rural areas will also help to reduce movement to urban centres.
- Establishment of corporate branches: Government departments, business firms and financial institutions should be encouraged to establish their branches in rural areas.
Provision of recreation facilities: If recreational facilities like stadia, swimming pools, cinema houses and amusement parks, are matters available in rural areas, 1 reduce the propensity of our youth to move to urban areas.