CIRCULATORY SYSTEM IN MAMMALS

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM IN MAMMALS

Meaning: circulatory system refers to the continuous movement or flow of the blood round the body involving the heart and the blood vessels.

Types of circulatory systems

Circulatory systems in animals can grouped into three major categories:
(a) Closed and opened circulatory systems,
(b) Single and double circulatory systems
(c) Pulmonary and systemic circulatory systems.

circulatory system in mammals
animal circulatory system

closed and opened circulatory systems

Closed and opened circulatory system: the closed circulatory systems are made up of blood vessels called arteries from the heart which branch many times into small units called capillaries but eventually join up with other vessels called veins that are connected to the heart.

RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON</ahref=”https:>

  1. LEAF ROLLER
  2. BEAN BEETLE
  3. RICE WEEVILS
  4. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
  5. CROP IMPROVEMENT
  6. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
  7. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
  8. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
  9. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
  10. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
  11. RUMINANT ANIMALS
  12. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
  13. THE NEURONS
  14. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
  15. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
  16. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
  17. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  18. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
  19. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  20. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
  21. THE HEART
  22. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
  23. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
  24. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
  25. MATING
  26. PARTURITION
  27. MAMMARY GLAND
  28. LACTATION
  29. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
  30. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
  31. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
  32. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
  33. POULTRY
  34. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
  35. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
  36. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
  37. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM
    PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
  38. POULTRY SANITATION
  39. ANIMAL NUTRITION
  40. RATION
  41. CONCENTRATE
  42. ROUGHAGE
  43. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
  44. CARBOHYDRATES
  45. PROTEIN FATS
  46. MINERALS
  47. VITAMINS
  48. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
  49. TYPES OF DIETS
  50. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
  51. LAYER DIETS
  52. BALANCED DIETS
  53. LACTATION DIETS
  54. MALNUTRITION

  55. RINDER PESTS

  56. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
  57. BACTERIA DISEASES
  58. ANTHRAX
  59. BRUCELLOSIS
  60. TUBERCULOSIS
  61. FUNGAL DISEASES

  62. PROTOZOAN DISEASES

  63. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
  64. COCCIDIOSIS
  65. RED FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
  66. ENDO PARASITES
  67. TAPE WORM
  68. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
  69. LIVER FLUKE
  70. ECTO PARASITES
  71. TICK
  72. LICE

By this design blood is therefore always confined within the cells of the body. Some invertebrates like annelids and all the vertebrates have closed circulatory systems. In mammals, for example, there is no mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in the heart. While oxygenated blood is confined to the left part of the heart, deoxygenated blood is confined to the right side.

i.
ii. Opened circulatory systems:

in this system, the blood vessels lead out of the heart but end in blood spaces called heamocoels within the body cavity. In these spaces, the blood comes into the direct contact with the cells after which it is returned to the heart. Arthropods and some Molluscs have opened circulatory systems.

Single and double circulatory systems in mammals

(i) Single circulatory system: in double circulatory system, the blood only passes through the heart twice every time it makes one complete movement round the body.

Each time the blood passes through the heart, it goes through a separate pathway. This system is common in fish which has only two-chambered heart–one auricle and one ventricle

.
(ii) Double circulatory system:

in double circulatory system, the blood passes through the heart twice every time it makes one complete movement round the body. Each time the blood passes through the heart, it goes through a separate pathway. This is found in mammals. The double circulation gives rise to the two pathways involved in double circulatory system called pulmonary and systemic circulation.

differences between diffusion and circulatory system

Diffusion
1. It occurs mainly in small organisms
2. It takes place at a slow rate.
3. It is less efficient.
4. It does not require the expenditure of energy
Circulatory system
1. It occurs in multicellular organisms.
2. It takes place at a faster rate.
3. It is more efficient.
4. It requires the expenditure of more energy.

differences between open system and close system

Open system
1. Blood bathes the major organ

circulatory system in mammals
circulatory system

and tissues directly
2. There are no small vessels or capillaries connecting arteries with veins
3. It is found in some Molluscs arthropods and lower
4. Blood returns directly to the heart
5. The blood ends up in blood spaces [haemocoels] within the body
Closed system
1. Fluids with nutrients get to the body tissues from the capillaries as tissue fluids and lymph
2. Smaller blood capillaries unite the small arteries with the veins
3. It is found in annelids, vertebrates and some invertebrates
4. Blood returns to the heart through the veins.
5. Blood flows via the arteries, veins and capillaries

blood circulation
circulatory system

Pulmonary and systemic circulation

  1. Pulmonary circulation: the pulmonary circulation involves the movement of blood between the heart and the lungs. In other words, it involves the movement of blood from the heart to the lungs for oxygenation.

Systemic circulation in mammals

: the systemic circulation involves the movement of blood between the heart and all other part of the body besides the lungs. In one complete circulation, blood from any part of the body enters the heart for the first time, it is then sent to the lungs for oxygenation.

From the lungs, it is brought back to the heart for the second time before it can be redistributed to all parts of the body. This is the sequence involve in double circulation

Pulmonary and systemic circulation can be represented mathematically by linear equation as: pulmonary circulation= heart + lungs

blood circulation and body organ
circulatory system

Systemic circulation= heart + body

The appearance of the heart twice in the two equations represents the double circulation of blood in animals.
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RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON</ahref=”https:>

  1. LEAF ROLLER
  2. BEAN BEETLE
  3. RICE WEEVILS
  4. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
  5. CROP IMPROVEMENT
  6. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
  7. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
  8. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
  9. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
  10. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
  11. RUMINANT ANIMALS
  12. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
  13. THE NEURONS
  14. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
  15. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
  16. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
  17. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  18. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
  19. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  20. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
  21. THE HEART
  22. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
  23. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
  24. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
  25. MATING
  26. PARTURITION
  27. MAMMARY GLAND
  28. LACTATION
  29. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
  30. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
  31. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
  32. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
  33. POULTRY
  34. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
  35. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
  36. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
  37. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM
    PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
  38. POULTRY SANITATION
  39. ANIMAL NUTRITION
  40. RATION
  41. CONCENTRATE
  42. ROUGHAGE
  43. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
  44. CARBOHYDRATES
  45. PROTEIN FATS
  46. MINERALS
  47. VITAMINS
  48. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
  49. TYPES OF DIETS
  50. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
  51. LAYER DIETS
  52. BALANCED DIETS
  53. LACTATION DIETS
  54. MALNUTRITION

  55. RINDER PESTS

  56. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
  57. BACTERIA DISEASES
  58. ANTHRAX
  59. BRUCELLOSIS
  60. TUBERCULOSIS
  61. FUNGAL DISEASES

  62. PROTOZOAN DISEASES

  63. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
  64. COCCIDIOSIS
  65. RED FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
  66. ENDO PARASITES
  67. TAPE WORM
  68. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
  69. LIVER FLUKE
  70. ECTO PARASITES
  71. TICK
  72. LICE

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