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GERMINATION OF SEED

Seed Germination of crops

Germination is the quickening of the growth of embryo, resulting in the emergence of first, the radicle of the seed and then the plumule from the seed coat. read parts of plants here

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The radical develops into the root, while the plumule grows into the shoot. During germination, water is absorbed by the seed, enzymes and hormones are secreted and stored food materials hydrolyze to generate soluble substances which are carried to the growing points.
The stored food in the cotyledon(s) is used by the new plant to grow as soon as leaves are formed. The plant uses water from the soil and carbon (IV) oxide from the air, to manufacture its food by a process known as photosynthesis.

Factors affecting seed germination
(i) Temperature/suitable temperature/optimum temperature
(ii) Air/Oxygen
(iii) Moisture/Water/Rainfall
(iv) Viable seed

IMPORTANCE OF CONDUCTING A GERMINATION TEST

(i) To assess the viability of the seeds.
(ii) To determine seed rate

PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF POOR QUALITY PLANTING MATERIALS

(i) It may lead to uneven germination and establishment which will eventually require replanting.
(ii) Seedlings may be weak or feeble, thereby predisposing them to mechanical damage, disease infection and pest attack.

(iii) It requires grading and disinfection of the planting material against seed borne pests and diseases.
(iv) Extra costs are incurred in purchasing more planting materials.
(v) Uneven plant growth.
(vi) Uneven growth may lead to uneven maturity. This will lead to haphazard nature of harvesting.
(vii) Marketing of produce is affected by uneven maturity and harvesting.

(viii) Poor quality produce is harvested. crop Processing is affected due to the unequal sizes of the produce.
(i) Yield is reduced/poor.

1.      factors of production

2.      entrepreneur

3.      joint stock company

4.      public enterprises

5.      private enterprises

6.      limited liability companies

7.      migration

8.      population

9.      market concept

10.  money market

11.  shares

12.  how companies raises funds for expansion

13.   

 

WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2.
DISEASES
3. 52.
SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4.
ORGANIC MANURING
5.
FARM YARD MANURE
6.
HUMUS
7.
COMPOST
8.
CROP ROTATION
9.
GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10.
IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE

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