Blood AND BLOOD PROPERTIES

Blood is a vital fluid that runs through our veins and arteries, transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout our bodies. It is a crucial component of our circulatory system and plays a crucial role in maintaining our overall health and well-being.

The human body contains an average of 5 to 6 litres of blood, which is made up of different components, including red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma. Each of these components has its own unique functions, and a disruption in their balance can lead to various health issues.

Red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, are responsible for carrying oxygen to different parts of the body. These cells are rich in haemoglobin, a protein that binds with oxygen and transports it to the tissues. A low red blood cell count can result in anemia, which can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.

White blood cells, on the other hand, play a vital role in fighting off infections and diseases. These cells are the body\’s first line of defence against harmful pathogens and help keep us healthy. An imbalance in white blood cell count can lead to various health problems, such as infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancers.

Platelets are tiny cells that help in blood clotting. They play a crucial role in stopping bleeding by forming clots and preventing excessive blood loss. A deficiency in platelets can lead to excessive bleeding, while an excess can cause blood clots, which can be dangerous.

Plasma is the liquid part of blood that carries nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body. It also helps regulate body temperature and maintain fluid balance. An imbalance in plasma can lead to various health issues, such as dehydration, shock, and blood pressure changes.

Blood transfusions are a common medical procedure used to treat various health conditions. In this procedure, blood is collected from a donor and transfused into the recipient\’s bloodstream. Blood type compatibility is crucial in blood transfusions, and it is essential to match the donor\’s blood type with the recipient\’s blood type to prevent adverse reactions.

blood is a vital fluid that plays a crucial role in maintaining our overall health and well-being. Understanding the different components of blood and their functions can help us better appreciate the importance of blood in our lives. Regular blood tests and check-ups can help detect any imbalances and prevent health issues. Remember, a healthy body needs healthy blood!

Some of us have played either football or netball. Occasionally, we have obtained some wounds or have seen someone wounded. Others have had accidents when they cut their hands with a blade or knife. This is bad and should be avoided. But, where there is a cut what do you notice?
A red liquid comes out of the body. This red liquid is known as blood.

functions of the blood

Blood is an essential fluid that performs several vital functions in our body. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the health and well-being of our body systems. Here are some of the significant functions of blood:

  1. Transporting Oxygen and Nutrients: Blood carries oxygen from the lungs to the body\’s cells and tissues, allowing them to function correctly. It also transports nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids, to cells for energy production.
  2. Removing Waste Products: Blood also removes waste products, such as carbon dioxide, urea, and lactic acid, from cells and transports them to the lungs, kidneys, and liver for elimination.
  3. Regulating Body Temperature: Blood helps regulate body temperature by carrying heat away from the internal organs to the skin surface, which is released into the environment.
  4. Maintaining pH Balance: Blood helps maintain the body\’s pH balance by regulating the concentration of acids and bases in the body fluids.
  5. Clotting: Blood contains platelets and clotting factors that help to stop bleeding when a blood vessel is damaged.
  6. Fighting Infections: Blood contains white blood cells, which help to fight off infections by destroying bacteria, viruses, and other harmful pathogens.
  7. Transporting Hormones: Blood transports hormones, which are chemical messengers that regulate various body functions, including growth, metabolism, and reproductive processes.
  8. Maintaining Fluid Balance: Blood helps maintain the body\’s fluid balance by distributing water and electrolytes throughout the body.
  9. blood is a vital fluid that performs several essential functions in the body, including transporting oxygen and nutrients, removing waste products, regulating body temperature, maintaining pH balance, clotting, fighting infections, transporting hormones, and maintaining fluid balance. A healthy blood system is crucial for overall health and well-being, and regular blood tests and check-ups can help detect any imbalances and prevent health issues.

you can read about blood circulation here

After a few minutes, what happens? The blood forms a solid red part and a watery part which looks yellowish in colour.

what is plasma

Plasma is the liquid component of blood, accounting for about 55% of the blood\’s volume. It is a pale yellow fluid that appears when blood is separated from its cellular components, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, through a process called centrifugation. Plasma is essential for maintaining normal body functions, and it plays a critical role in the body\’s immune system, blood clotting, and transport of nutrients, hormones, and waste products.

Plasma is a complex mixture of water, electrolytes, hormones, enzymes, proteins, and other nutrients. It contains various proteins, including albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen, which are synthesized in the liver and play important roles in maintaining the blood\’s osmotic pressure, transporting lipids, and regulating immune responses.

Plasma also contains clotting factors, which are essential for the blood to clot and stop bleeding when an injury occurs. These clotting factors interact with platelets to form a clot, which seals the wound and prevents further bleeding.

In addition to its role in blood clotting, plasma is also responsible for transporting nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids, to cells for energy production. It also carries waste products, such as carbon dioxide, urea, and lactic acid, to the liver and kidneys for removal from the body.

Plasma is also a vital component of the body\’s immune system, containing antibodies and other immune cells that help protect the body against infections and diseases. These antibodies and immune cells recognize and neutralize foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins, and stimulate an immune response to prevent further infection.

In summary, plasma is the liquid component of blood that contains various proteins, clotting factors, and other nutrients essential for maintaining normal body functions. It plays a critical role in blood clotting, the transport of nutrients and waste products, and the body\’s immune system. A healthy plasma level is essential for overall health and well-being, and any imbalances in plasma can lead to various health issues.

This watery part is called plasma.

BLOOD COMPONENTS

Blood is a complex fluid that contains several different types of cells and proteins that are responsible for maintaining normal body functions. The three main components of blood are red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

  1. Red Blood Cells (RBCs): Red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, are the most abundant cells in the blood, accounting for about 45% of the blood\’s volume. They are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body\’s tissues and removing carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs for exhalation. RBCs contain a protein called haemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and gives blood its red colour.
  2. White Blood Cells (WBCs): White blood cells, also known as leukocytes, are cells that play a critical role in the body\’s immune system by defending against infections and diseases. They account for less than 1% of the blood\’s volume and are further divided into several subtypes, including lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Each subtype has a specific function in the immune response.
  3. Platelets: Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small fragments of cells that are responsible for blood clotting. They account for less than 1% of the blood\’s volume and are activated when a blood vessel is damaged, forming a clot that stops bleeding. Platelets also release growth factors that help repair the damaged blood vessel.

In addition to these cellular components, blood also contains plasma, the liquid component of blood that contains various proteins, electrolytes, hormones, and other nutrients essential for maintaining normal body functions. Plasma accounts for about 55% of the blood\’s volume and plays a critical role in blood clotting, transport of nutrients and waste products, and the body\’s immune system.

In summary, blood is a complex fluid that contains several different types of cells and proteins that are responsible for maintaining normal body functions. The three main components of blood are red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, each with a specific function in the body. Plasma, the liquid component of blood, also plays a critical role in maintaining normal body functions.

Solid part (cells)
Contains:
i. Red blood corpuscles (cells)
ii. White blood corpuscles (cells)

Watery part (plasma)
Contains:
i. Salt (from food)
ii. Sugar (from food)
iii. Protein (from meat)
iv. Waste products, e.g. urea (from the body)

WHAT ARE THE BLOOD CORPUSCLES?

Blood corpuscles, also known as blood cells, are the cellular components of blood that are responsible for carrying out various functions in the body. There are three main types of blood cells: red blood cells (also known as erythrocytes), white blood cells (also known as leukocytes), and platelets (also known as thrombocytes).

Red blood cells are the most abundant type of blood cell and are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the body\’s tissues and organs. They contain a protein called haemoglobin, which binds to oxygen molecules and transports them to where they are needed in the body.

White blood cells are an essential part of the immune system and help to fight off infections and foreign invaders in the body. There are several types of white blood cells, each with its unique functions.

Platelets play a critical role in blood clotting and help to prevent excessive bleeding when a blood vessel is damaged.

All three types of blood cells are produced in the bone marrow and are continually being replenished throughout a person\’s life. Any disruptions to the production or function of these cells can lead to various health problems and conditions.

. The red blood corpuscles: These are small rounded cells which appear red. They contain a substance called haemoglobin. This haemoglobin is like oxygen. In the lungs, it takes up oxygen and is carried by the red blood corpuscles to all parts of the body. In the body, oxygen is set free for the body to make use of.

The body has about 30,000,000 million red blood corpuscles

.
b. The white blood corpuscles: these cells, like soldiers, defend the body against some germs which cause diseases. They are bigger than the red blood corpuscles and can move about slowly in the blood. About 42,000 million white blood cells are found in the body.

FUNCTIONS OF THE BLOOD

The blood does a lot of work in the body
i. The blood carries digested food substances such as glucose (sugar) and amino-acid (proteins) from the intestines to all parts of the body where they are needed.
ii. The red blood corpuscles of the blood take oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body. The waste products such as urea and carbon dioxide are carried in the blood. Urea is removed from the body as urine while carbon dioxide is expelled when we breathe out.
iii. The white blood corpuscles fight and destroy germs in the body. They can also prevent them from entering the body, especially in wounded areas.

HOW THE BLOOD MOVES AROUND THE BODY

Our body is like a small town. Just as water in the town travels to all houses through pipes, the blood in the body travels to all houses through pipes, and the blood in the body travels to all parts through its own small pipes called the blood vessels. The vessels that carry pure blood are called arteries while those that carry impure blood are called veins. The smallest blood vessels are called capillaries.

The movement of blood around the body is essential for maintaining the health and function of all organs and tissues. Blood is a fluid that carries oxygen and nutrients to cells, removes waste products, and helps regulate body temperature and pH balance.

The heart is the primary organ responsible for circulating blood around the body. It is a muscular pump that receives blood from the body\’s veins and pumps it out into the arteries. The heart is divided into four chambers: the right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, and left ventricle. The right and left sides of the heart are separated by a wall called the septum.

The heart works by contracting and relaxing in a coordinated manner. Blood flows into the right atrium from the body\’s veins, and then into the right ventricle. From the right ventricle, blood is pumped out into the pulmonary artery, which carries it to the lungs. In the lungs, oxygen is absorbed into the blood and carbon dioxide is released.

The oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart via the pulmonary veins, entering the left atrium. It then passes into the left ventricle, which pumps it out into the aorta, the body\’s largest artery. The aorta branches into smaller arteries that carry blood to all parts of the body. As the blood circulates through the body\’s tissues, it delivers oxygen and nutrients and picks up waste products.

The blood eventually returns to the heart through the veins, starting the process again. The movement of blood around the body is aided by the contraction of

Human anatomy is the study of the structure of the human body, including its organs, tissues, and cells. It involves the examination of the body\’s systems and how they work together to perform various functions necessary for life. Human anatomy is a complex and detailed field of study that is essential for a wide range of medical professions, including physicians, nurses, physical therapists, and many others. Some of the major systems of the body that are studied in human anatomy include the skeletal system, muscular system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, nervous system, and endocrine system. Understanding the human anatomy is critical for the diagnosis and treatment of many medical conditions, as well as for the development of new treatments and therapies.

Physical therapists are healthcare professionals who specialize in helping individuals improve their physical function and mobility, reduce pain, and prevent or manage physical disabilities. They work with patients of all ages, from infants to seniors, and may treat a wide range of conditions, including musculoskeletal injuries, neurological disorders, cardiopulmonary diseases, and chronic pain.

Physical therapists typically evaluate a patient\’s medical history, physical abilities, and specific needs to develop a personalized treatment plan. Treatment may include exercises, manual therapy, functional training, and the use of assistive devices such as crutches or wheelchairs. Physical therapists may also provide education and counsel on how to prevent future injuries or manage existing conditions.

Physical therapy is often prescribed as a non-invasive alternative to surgery or medication. It is also used as a part of rehabilitation after surgery or to improve mobility and function in individuals with chronic conditions. Physical therapists work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, outpatient clinics, rehabilitation centres, schools, and sports medicine clinics.

, which helps push blood back to the heart. This is particularly important in the legs, where the force of gravity can make it more difficult for blood to flow back to the heart.

In summary, the movement of blood around the body is driven by the heart\’s pumping action and aided by the contraction of surrounding muscles. It is a continuous process that is essential for maintaining the health and function of all organs and tissues.

In towns, water is pumped to houses at the power station. In the body, the power station from where blood is pumped to all parts of the body is called the heart.

THE HEART IS THE ORGAN THAT PUMPS BLOOD

The heart is found inside the chest. Touch the left side of your

\"the

chest with your hand. You will notice the beating of the heart. This beating continues throughout life. When it stops death occurs.
The heart is like a `top’ or cone. Its walls are very thick. The thick walls help to pump blood around the body

the heart is divided into four chambers.

These are the left and right auricles and the left and right ventricles. The walls of the ventricles are thicker than those of the auricles.
From the heart arise a number of blood vessels or pipes which bring in or take away blood during its journey around the body. The most important of these blood vessels are the aorta and the pulmonary artery. The aorta takes blood to all parts of the body while the pulmonary artery takes impure blood from the body into the lungs where it is purified. The heart has some valves which prevent blood from moving backwards.

When the left ventricle contracts pure blood is pumped from the ventricle into the aorta which takes it to all parts of the body such as the head, arms, intestines, kidneys and legs. From all these places blood which is now impure is brought back into the right auricle of the heart.
From the right auricle, the impure blood is pumped into the right ventricle from where it is pumped again into the lungs to obtain fresh oxygen.
Pure blood from the lungs returns to the left auricle of the heart. From the left auricle, it passes into the left ventricle for the journey around the body to start again.

Body fluids are liquids that are found within the human body. These fluids are important for maintaining the normal functioning of various organs and systems in the body. Some of the main body fluids include:

  1. Blood: Blood is a fluid that circulates throughout the body and is responsible for carrying oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to different parts of the body.
  2. Plasma: Plasma is the liquid part of blood that contains various proteins and other substances that are necessary for blood clotting and the immune response.
  3. Lymph: Lymph is a clear fluid that circulates through the lymphatic system and helps to remove waste products and foreign substances from the body.
  4. Cerebrospinal fluid: Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear liquid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord, providing protection and cushioning for these delicate structures.
  5. Synovial fluid: Synovial fluid is a thick, viscous fluid that is found in the joints and helps to lubricate and cushion the bones during movement.
  6. Sweat: Sweat is a watery fluid that is secreted by sweat glands in the skin and helps to regulate body temperature.
  7. Urine: Urine is a liquid waste product that is produced by the kidneys and eliminated from the body through the urinary system.

Each of these body fluids has its own unique composition and plays an important role in maintaining the health and well-being of the body

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Human anatomy is the study of the structure of the human body, including its organs, tissues, and cells. It involves the examination of the body\’s systems and how they work together to perform various functions necessary for life. Human anatomy is a complex and detailed field of study that is essential for a wide range of medical professions, including physicians, nurses, physical therapists, and many others. Some of the major systems of the body that are studied in human anatomy include the skeletal system, muscular system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, nervous system, and endocrine system. Understanding the human anatomy is critical for the diagnosis and treatment of many medical conditions, as well as for the development of new treatments and therapies

Physical therapists are healthcare professionals who specialize in the assessment and treatment of patients with physical disabilities or injuries. They work with patients to help them regain movement, manage pain, and improve their overall physical function. Physical therapists use a variety of techniques to treat their patients, including exercises, manual therapy, and the use of specialized equipment.

Physical therapists work with patients of all ages, from infants to the elderly. They may treat patients with a wide range of conditions, including musculoskeletal injuries, neurological disorders, cardiovascular and respiratory problems, and chronic pain. Physical therapists may work in a variety of settings, such as hospitals, outpatient clinics, rehabilitation centres, schools, and sports facilities.

In addition to providing direct patient care, physical therapists may also be involved in research, teaching, and healthcare administration. They play an important role in the healthcare system by helping patients recover from injuries and disabilities, and by promoting healthy lifestyles and injury prevention.

Human anatomy is the study of the structure of the human body, including its organs, tissues, and cells. It involves the examination of the body\’s systems and how they work together to perform various functions necessary for life. Human anatomy is a complex and detailed field of study that is essential for a wide range of medical professions, including physicians, nurses, physical therapists, and many others. Some of the major systems of the body that are studied in human anatomy include the skeletal system, muscular system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, nervous system, and endocrine system. Understanding the human anatomy is critical for the diagnosis and treatment of many medical conditions, as well as for the development of new treatments and therapies

Physical therapists are healthcare professionals who specialize in helping individuals improve their physical function and mobility, reduce pain, and prevent or manage physical disabilities. They work with patients of all ages, from infants to seniors, and may treat a wide range of conditions, including musculoskeletal injuries, neurological disorders, cardiopulmonary diseases, and chronic pain.

Physical therapists typically evaluate a patient\’s medical history, physical abilities, and specific needs to develop a personalized treatment plan. Treatment may include exercises, manual therapy, functional training, and the use of assistive devices such as crutches or wheelchairs. Physical therapists may also provide education and counsel on how to prevent future injuries or manage existing conditions.

Physical therapy is often prescribed as a non-invasive alternative to surgery or medication. It is also used as a part of rehabilitation after surgery or to improve mobility and function in individuals with chronic conditions. Physical therapists work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, outpatient clinics, rehabilitation centres, schools, and sports medicine clinics.

Medical professions are a diverse group of healthcare careers focused on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of illnesses and injuries. Some of the most common medical professions include:

  1. Physicians: These are medical doctors who diagnose and treat illnesses and injuries. They may specialize in a specific area of medicine, such as cardiology, neurology, or paediatrics.
  2. Nurses: These healthcare professionals provide direct patient care and may work in a variety of settings, such as hospitals, clinics, or nursing homes. They may specialize in areas such as critical care, oncology, or geriatrics.
  3. Dentists: These professionals focus on the health of the teeth, gums, and mouth, and may provide services such as cleanings, fillings, and extractions.
  4. Pharmacists: These healthcare professionals specialize in the use of medications to treat illnesses and conditions. They may work in pharmacies, hospitals, or other healthcare settings.
  5. Physical therapists: These professionals help patients improve their physical function and mobility through exercise, manual therapy, and other treatments.
  6. Occupational therapists: These professionals work with patients to improve their ability to perform daily tasks, such as dressing or cooking, after an injury or illness.
  7. Speech-language pathologists: These professionals help patients with speech and language disorders, as well as swallowing disorders.
  8. Medical laboratory scientists: These professionals perform laboratory tests on patient samples to diagnose and monitor illnesses and conditions.
  9. Radiologic technologists: These professionals use medical imaging technology, such as X-rays or MRIs, to help diagnose and treat illnesses and injuries.

These are just a few examples of the many medical professions available. Each profession requires specialized education and training, and individuals in these careers play a critical role in the healthcare system.

  1. oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to different parts of the body.
  2. Plasma: Plasma is the liquid part of blood that contains various proteins and other substances that are necessary for blood clotting and the immune response.
  3. Lymph: Lymph is a clear fluid that circulates through the lymphatic system and helps to remove waste products and foreign substances from the body.
  4. Cerebrospinal fluid: Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear liquid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord, providing protection and cushioning for these delicate structures.
  5. Synovial fluid: Synovial fluid is a thick, viscous fluid that is found in the joints and helps to lubricate and cushion the bones during movement.
  6. Sweat: Sweat is a watery fluid that is secreted by sweat glands in the skin and helps to regulate body temperature.
  7. Urine: Urine is a liquid waste product that is produced by the kidneys and eliminated from the body through the urinary system.

Each of these body fluids has its own unique composition and plays an important role in maintaining the health and well-being of the body.

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Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colourless fluid that is found in the brain and spinal cord. It acts as a cushion, protecting the brain and spinal cord from injury and trauma. CSF also helps to remove waste products and regulate the chemical environment of the brain.

CSF is produced in the ventricles of the brain, specifically the lateral ventricles, the third ventricle, and the fourth ventricle. It circulates through the ventricles and then flows out of the brain and spinal cord, bathing them in a constant flow of fluid. CSF is constantly being produced and reabsorbed, so the volume of CSF in the brain and spinal cord remains relatively constant.

CSF contains a number of substances, including glucose, electrolytes, proteins, and white blood cells. Changes in the composition of CSF can indicate a variety of medical conditions, including infections, tumours, and neurological disorders.

To test for abnormalities in CSF, a procedure called a lumbar puncture (also known as a spinal tap) may be performed. In this procedure, a needle is inserted into the spinal canal to remove a sample of CSF for analysis. This test can help diagnose conditions such as meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and certain types of cancer.

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Neurological disorders are a group of conditions that affect the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. These disorders can affect the way a person thinks, feels, and behaves, as well as their ability to move and control their body.

There are many different types of neurological disorders, and they can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, infections, injuries, and environmental factors. Some common neurological disorders include:

  1. Alzheimer\’s disease: a progressive brain disorder that affects memory, thinking, and behaviour.
  2. Parkinson\’s disease: a degenerative disorder that affects movement and can cause tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination.
  3. Multiple sclerosis: an autoimmune disorder that affects the central nervous system and can cause a variety of symptoms, including numbness, weakness, and difficulty with coordination.
  4. Epilepsy: a disorder characterized by recurrent seizures, which can be caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain.
  5. Migraine: a type of headache that is often accompanied by other symptoms, such as sensitivity to light and sound, and nausea.
  6. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, leading to muscle weakness and eventually paralysis.
  7. Huntington\’s disease: a genetic disorder that causes the progressive breakdown of nerve cells in the brain, leading to movement, cognitive, and psychiatric problems.
  8. Tourette syndrome: a disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements and vocalizations.
  9. Cerebral palsy: a group of disorders that affect movement and coordination, often caused by brain damage that occurs before or during birth.
  10. Traumatic brain injury: a brain injury caused by a blow or jolt to the head, which can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe.

Treatment for neurological disorders depends on the specific condition and can include medication, surgery, physical therapy, and other types of therapy. It\’s important to seek medical advice if you experience symptoms of a neurological disorder, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes.

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WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
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6. HUMUS

Neurological disorders refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, and nerves throughout the body. These disorders can cause a variety of symptoms, including movement problems, sensory disturbances, cognitive impairment, and behavioural changes. Here are some common neurological disorders:

  1. Alzheimer\’s disease: a progressive disorder that affects memory, thinking, and behaviour.
  2. Parkinson\’s disease: a disorder that affects movement, causing tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination.
  3. Multiple sclerosis: a disorder in which the immune system attacks the protective covering of nerves, leading to communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body.
  4. Epilepsy: a disorder that causes seizures, which are sudden bursts of electrical activity in the brain.
  5. Stroke: a condition in which blood flow to the brain is disrupted, causing brain damage.
  6. Migraine: a type of headache that can be debilitating and is often accompanied by sensitivity to light and sound.
  7. Huntington\’s disease: a genetic disorder that causes progressive damage to nerve cells in the brain, leading to movement problems, cognitive decline, and psychiatric symptoms.
  8. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): a disorder that affects the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscles, causing muscle weakness and wasting.
  9. Tourette\’s syndrome: a disorder characterized by involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics.
  10. Cerebral palsy: a disorder that affects movement and posture, often caused by brain damage that occurs before, during, or shortly after birth.

There are many other neurological disorders, and each one can present with its unique set of symptoms and challenges. Treatment options vary depending on the condition and may include medications, surgery, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and other interventions.

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