CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMAL KINGDOM

KINGDOM ANIMALIA

The animal kingdom is subdivided into the following sub-groups
ANIMALIA
PHYLUM
1. PORIFERA
2. COELERENTERATA
3. PLATYHELMINTHES
4. NEMATODA
5. ANNELIDA
6. MOLUSCA
7. ARTHROPODA
8. ECHINODERMATA
9. CHORDAQTA

breeds of Goats
breeds of Goats and management of goat farm

THIS IS THE MAJOR GROUPS IN ANIMAL KINGDOM

The first eight phyla of the animal kingdom belongs to the sub-phyla invertebrates i.e. they are animals without backbone and external skeleton while the Phylum Chordata belongs to the Phylum Vertebrata i.e. animals with backbone and internal skeleton
Here I want to take a little time to delve into these groups of animals to explain with more precise details of their various characteristics.

  1. PORIFERA
    CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PORIERAS
    i. They are simple aquatic invertebrates PORIFERA
    ii. They do not move about but are attached to rocks or shells-PONIFERA
    iii. They live in colonies-PONIFERA
    iv. They are primitive multi-cellular animals-PONIFERA
    v. They have asymmetrical bodies which is that their bodies can be divided into two equal halves or parts-PONIFERA
    vi. They are merely colonies of cells hence they lack specialized tissues-PONIFERA
    vii. Examples of animals in this group is the sponges-PONIFERA
  2. COELENTARATA
    CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COELENTARATA
    I. COELENTARATA ARE MULTI-CELLULAR ANIMALS
    II. Coelenterata body is made up of two layers
    III. Coelenterata are mainly aquatic organisms
    IV. Coelenterata bodies possesses radial symmetry
    V. Coelenterata have soft jelly body
    VI. Coelenterata possesses tentacles and stinging cells for capturing their prey
    VII. Coelenterata reproduces asexually by budding
    VIII. Example of Coelenterata are jelly fish, Hydra, Anemones and Corals
parts of a cow
labeled parts of a cattle
  1. PLATYHEMENTHES
    CHARACTERISTICS OF PLATYHEMENTHES
    i. Platyhementhes are multi-cellular flat worms
    ii. platyhementhes are bilaterally symmetrical
    iii. platyhementhes do not have body cavity or lumen
    iv. platyhementhes body is made up of three layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm
    v. platyhementhes are mainly parasites in man and a few others in animals
    vi. platyhementhes are also known as flat worms are hermaphrodites and reproduces sexually
    vii. examples of Platyhementhes are Tapeworm, Planaria, Liverflukes (fasciola) and Bloodfluke which is also known as Schistosoma

  1. NEMATODA/NEMATODES
    CHARACTERISTICS OF NEMATODES ALSO KNOWN AS ROUNDWORMS
    I. Nematodes have round and cylindrical bodies
    II. Nematodes lacks body cavity
    III. Nematodes are bilaterally symmetrical
    IV. Some Nematodes are parasites in man while some are free living
    V. Nematode body is made up of three layers
    VI. Some Nematodes are hermaphrodites while some of them reproduce sexually
    VII. Examples of Nematodes are roundworms, hookworms, guinea worms, threadworms and filarial worms
  2. ANNELIDA/ANNELID
    CHARACTERISTICS OF ANNELIDA
    i. Annelids have internal and external segmented bodies
    ii. Annelids have long cylindrical bodies
    iii. Annelids have a true body cavity also called Coelom
    iv. Annelids are aquatic while some are terrestrial, which means they live in the soil
    v. Annelids elementary canals has two openings, the mouth and Anus
    vi. Annelids reproduce sexually while some are hermaphrodites
    vii. Annelids bodies are made up of three layers
    viii. Examples are earthworms, leeches and tubeworms

    MOLUSCA

  1. CHARACTERISTICS OF MOLLUSCA
    I. MOLLUSCS HAVE SOFT AND Unsegmented bodies
    II. Mollusca have tentacles in their heads
    III. Mollusca possesses muscular foot-like body adapted for crawling
    IV. Mollusca body is covered by a soft tissue called mantle
    V. Some Mollusca have calcareous shell e.g. snails, while some don’t have shell e.g. the Octopus and Slug
    VI. Mollusca are aquatic mostly but a few are terrestrial
    VII. Mollusca eyes and tentacles are mainly used for navigation and sensitivity
    VIII. Examples of Mollusca are Squid, mussels, periwinkles, snails. Oysters, Octopus and Slug
digestive system of an earthworm
digestive system
  1. ARTHROPODA
    CHARACTERISTICS OF ARTHROPODA
    The Arthropoda is the largest phylum in the animal kingdom. It is sub-divided into the following
    i. CRUSTACEA
    ii. INSECTA
    iii. ARACHNIDA
    iv. MYRIAPODA
    GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ARTHROPODA
    i. Arthropoda possesses segmented bodies
    ii. Arthropoda have hard, rigid exoskeleton made of chitin
    iii. Arthropoda have joined appendages or jointed legs used for feeding, movement, reproduction and some serves as sensory organs

iv. Arthropoda exhibits moulting or ecdysis. Which means they shed their exoskeleton at certain stages to permit growth
v. Arthropoda are aquatic while some are terrestrial
vi. Arthropoda bodies are divided into two or three segments such as the head, thorax and abdomen
vii. Arthropoda bodies are bilaterally symmetrical
viii. Arthropoda are triploblastic, i.e. they have three body layers
ix. Arthropoda have various means of respiration which are gills, trachea, lung book or the body surface

x. Examples are
a. INSECT- GRASSHOPPER, COCKROACH, HOUSEFLY, BUTTERFLY
b. ARACHNIDA- SPIDER, SCORPION, TICKS AND MITES
c. CRUSTACEANS- CRAB, CRAYFISH, SHRIMPS, PRAWNS AND LOBSTERS
d. MYRIOPDA- CENTIPEDES AND MILIPEDES

  1. ECHINODERMATA
    CHARACTERISTICS OF Echinodermata
    i. Echinodermata bodies are radially symmetrical
    ii. Echinodermata are mainly aquatic animals
    iii. Echinodermata have spiny skin
    iv. Echinodermata are triploblastic animals
    v. Echinodermata have no brain nor head and their body is not segmented
    vi. Echinodermata has tube feet which is used for movement
    vii. Examples are Starfish, Sea urchins, Bristle Star and Sea cucumbers
  2. CHORDATA
    CHARACTERISTICS OF CHORDATA
    The chordata has a sub-phylum called Vertebrata.
    The vertebrates are characterized by the presence of backbone or vertebral column. They are divided into five classes. These are
    i. Pisces-Fishes
    ii. Amphibia-Amphibians
    iii. Reptilia-Reptiles
    iv. Aves-Birds
    v. Mammalia-Mammals

General characteristics of Vertebrata

i. The vertebrates possesses an internal jointed skeleton made up of cartilage or bones
ii. Vertebrates have bilaterally symmetrical bodies
iii. Vertebrates body is divided into head, trunk and tail
iv. Vertebrates have two pairs of limbs. The pectoral limbs form the fore-limbs or wings while the pelvic limbs forms the hind-limbs or legs
v. Vertebrates have well developed nervous system with brain and spinal cord
vi. Vertebrates have well developed sense organs
vii. Vertebrates have a well enclosed blood system which comprises the blood vessels and the heart
viii. Vertebrates have efficient excretory system such as the kidneys
ix. Vertebrates are triploblastic animals
x. Vertebrates have skins which may be naked or have a covering of scales, hairs or feathers

A. PISCES-FISHES, CHARACTERISTICS OF FISHES OR PISCES

i. Fishes or Pisces are aquatic animals. They can be found in the sea, lakes, rivers and ponds
ii. Pisces or Fishes skins are covered with scales but few are without scales
iii. Fishes or Pisces have fins which are used for movement in water
iv. Pisces or Fishes are Poikilothermic or cold-blooded animals. That means that their body temperature varies with that of its environment

v. Pisces or Fishes have gills that are used for gases exchange
vi. Pisces or fishes have lateral lines system. This is used for detection of vibrations and pressure in water
vii. Reproduction In Pisces or Fishes are mostly sexual but they have this external type of fertilization process

viii. Pisces or Fishes have what we term as swim bladder which they use to maintain buoyancy. That is floating on top water
ix. Fishes are Oviparous animals. That is to say they develop their eggs outside the body of an adult female fish
x. Pisces or Fishes have two chambered heart
xi. Pisces or Fishes show Parental care for their young ones
Fishes or Pisces can be further divided into two groups based on their skeletal system. These are bony and cartilaginous fishes
i. Bony fish: these are fishes with bony skeleton e.g. tilapia, carp, salmon mackerel, herring

ii. Cartilaginous fish: these are fishes whose bones are made up of cartilages, e.g. dog-fish, minnow fish, skate, ray-fish and sharks

B. AMPHIBIA
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AMPHIBIANS

I. Amphibians are poikilothermic or cold-blooded animals
II. Amphibians have two pairs of limbs, fore-limbs and hind-limbs
III. Amphibians have naked/moist and glandular skin with no external scales
IV. Amphibians carry out gaseous exchange by gills, lungs, skin and mouth
V. Amphibians reproduces sexually while fertilization takes place externally
VI. Amphibians young ones called tadpole are herbivores while the adult amphibians are carnivores
VII. Amphibians have poisonous glands on their skins used for defense

VIII. Amphibians have three chambered heart
IX. Amphibians have sticky tongue which can be protruded or retracted quickly
X. Amphibians exhibits dual lifestyle. They live both in water and on land
XI. Amphibians do not show parental care
XII. Examples are toad, frogs, salamander and newts

 AVES-BIRDS, CHARACTERISTICS OF BIRDS

i. Birds are homoeothermic or warm blooded animals
ii. Birds entire body are covered with feathers except for the legs that has scales
iii. Birds have two pairs of limbs
iv. Birds have wings which are used for flight
v. Birds have beaks and not teeth which are used for feeding
vi. Birds have rigid and hollow bones with air sacs which them very light during flight
vii. Birds have a four chambered heart
viii. They reproduce sexually and fertilization is internal
ix. Birds exhibits Oviparous mode of reproduction
x. Birds have lungs which are used for gaseous exchange
xi. Birds show parental care
xii. Examples are pigeon, domestic fowl, duck, parrot, eagle, hawk, sparrow and weaver bird

MAMMALIA-CHARACTERISTICS OF MAMMALS

i. Mammals are homoiothermic or warm blooded animals
ii. Mammalian bodies are usually covered with hairs
iii. Mammals have heterodont dentition , meaning they have different sets of teeth
iv. The mammalian internal cavity is divided into chest and abdomen by a muscular diaphragm
v. They possess lungs used for gaseous exchange
vi. Mammals have two pairs of limbs
vii. The mammalian skin contains glands like the sweat, sebaceous and mammary glands

viii. Reproduction in mammals is sexual and fertilization is internal
ix. Mammals have viviparous mode of reproduction, which means they give birth to their young ones alive
x. Mammals have well developed brain
xi. They have four chambered heart
xii. The body of a typical mammal is bilaterally symmetrical
xiii. Mammals have external ear called pinnae
xiv. Mammals show parental care to their young ones
xv. Examples are man, rabbit, goad, dog, sheep, whales, lion and elephant

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