MALARIA CAUSES AND PREVENTION

Malaria is a very dangerous disease which is known to have killed many people especially children. It usually starts as a fever when the body of the patient becomes hot. This is followed with headache and pains in the back and joints such persons do not feel like eating. Later the patient shivers and becomes restless. He cannot sleep even when he tries to and that is malaria in the making

 

CAUSES OF MALARIA

Malaria is caused by parasitic germs carried by an insect called Anopheles mosquito. When the mosquito bites, it pierces the skin and sucks out the blood. During the blood sucking operation, the parasites which are present in the mosquito are introduced into the body of man. Here, the parasites increase in number. They destroy the red blood corpuscles of man and introduce poisonous substances into his blood it is this poisonous substances that cause feverishness. If the blood of a sick person or a person who has been attacked earlier is sucked by another mosquito, the parasites are taken out and probably injected into another person during another bite which causes malaria

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THE MOSQUITO MALARIA VECTOR


The mosquito is a small, thin fly. It has two wings and six long tiny legs. It also has a long piercing mouth. Mosquitoes breed in the water standing in cans, broken bottles, pots and any other kind of container.
Adult mosquitoes live in the bush and in dark corners of the house. They are very active at night when most people are asleep.

 

It has four stages in its life cycle. These are the egg, the larva, the pupa and the adult Malaria

 

THE MOSQUITO EGG

The mosquitoes lays their eggs on the surface of stagnant or stationary water. The eggs are boat-shaped and have a floating apparatus called `floats’.

THE LARVA
In about four to seven days, the eggs hatch open and the larvae come out. The larva is a small, very active animal with a small head, big thorax and long segmented abdomen. It has a large number of brushes. At the tail end is a breathing tube. It lies on the surface of water.
THE PUPA
The larva changes into a comma-shaped pupa after about eight to eleven days. It has a big head with big eyes and breathing tubes.

THE MOSQUITO ADULT STAGE

As previously described, it is a small insect which is active at night or in dark rooms. The female hums. It has a long piercing mouth and bushy feelers.

PREVENTION MALARIA

Since malaria is caused by parasites carried by mosquitoes, it is best prevented by killing and destroying all stages of mosquitoes.
1. All adult mosquitoes should be killed by spraying houses with shelltox, DDT, and other insecticides. 2. All standing water in cans and empty containers should be drained away. Exposed water should not be allowed to remain for more than four days. Plants such as the cocoyam, banana and plantain should not be cultivated near houses, since between the leaves of these plants water will accumulate, thus, providing a suitable breeding place for mosquitoes.

3. The surface of stagnant pools which cannot be drained should be sprayed with oil. The oil spread over the water surface, prevents the larvae and the pupae of breeding mosquitoes from breathing. They will suffocate and die.

 

4. Quite occasionally we have large ponds of water. To prevent the breeding of mosquitoes, it is advisable to introduce some fish into such ponds. The fish will feed on the larvae and pupae. Malaria

 

feeding mechanisms in holozoic organisms

5. Attacks by mosquitoes can be prevented by sleeping under mosquito nets. Where possible house should be mosquito-proof with mosquito netting of fine wires or muslin netting.
6. Malaria can be avoided by taking few tablets of some medicines regularly. Such medicines include: nivaquine, camoquin, daraprim, etc. The medicines destroy the malarial parasites as they enter the body and thus prevent them from causing any damage to the blood.

2. SLEEPING SICKNESS
Sleeping sickness is very common in tropical Africa. In Nigeria, it is most common in the northern states. They attack cattle and horses.it also attacks man.
In man, sleeping sickness begins with a painful swelling in the skin. This is followed with fever, headache, pains and swelling of the neck. In later stages, the patient loses weight, becomes weak, dull, drowsy, and sleepy and may finally die.

 

CAUSES AND SPREAD OF SLEEPING SICKNESS INSECT BORNE DISEASE

Sleeping sickness is caused by some parasitic germs called trypanosomes. This germs are spread by a fly known as tsetse fly. When the fly bites a patient the parasites are introduced into the skin. From the skin the parasites enter the blood from where they are sent to other parts of the body including the brain.

 

PREVENTION OF SLEEPING SICKNESS INSECT BORNE DISEASE

Malaria

1. In tsetse fly areas, all bushes near houses should be cleared.
2. Since tsetse flies breed in swamps by rivers and lakes, they can be eliminated or prevented from spreading if the bushes around these rivers and lakes are cleared for considerable distances.
3. It is advisable to wear clothes which cover most parts of the body.
4. Some chemicals such as DDT, dieldrin, etc. may be used to spray to kill tsetse flies.

3. YELLOW FEVER INSECT BORNE DISEASE

Yellow fever is a disease caused by a germ (virus) carried by Aedes mosquitoes.
Yellow fever usually starts with fever and headache. This is accompanied with loss of appetite, some pains and general weakness
In severe cases, however, the patient becomes very ill due to the attack of patient’s liver and kidneys by the disease germs. The patient becomes yellow and it is important to note that a large number of patients with severe attacks usually die.

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    19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
    20. INCUBATORS
    21. MILKING MACHINE
    22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
    23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
    24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
    25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
    26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
    27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
    28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
    29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
    30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
    31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
    32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
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38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE

 

 

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PREVENTION OF YELLOW FEVER TYPE OF INSECT BORNE DISEASE

1. All mosquitoes must be destroyed by draining stagnant water in tins and cans.
2. Houses should be sprayed regularly to kill adult mosquitoes.
3. All bushes near houses should be cleared.
4. Always sleep under mosquito-nets.

 

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