1. MALARIA AND THE MOSQUITO.
Malaria is a very dangerous disease which is known to have killed many people especially children. It usually starts as a fever when the body of the patient becomes hot. This is followed with headache and pains in the back and joints such persons do not feel like eating. Later the patient shivers and becomes restless. He cannot sleep even when he tries to.
CAUSES OF MALARIA
Malaria is caused by parasitic germs carried by an insect called Anopheles mosquito. When the mosquito bites, it pierces the skin and sucks out the blood. During the blood sucking operation, the parasites which are present in the mosquito are introduced into the body of man. Here, the parasites increase in number. They destroy the red blood corpuscles of man and introduce poisonous substances into his blood it is this poisonous substances that cause feverishness. If the blood of a sick person or a person who has been attacked earlier is sucked by another mosquito, the parasites are taken out and probably injected into another person during another bite.
The mosquito is a small, thin fly. It has two wings and six long tiny legs. It also has a long piercing mouth. Mosquitoes breed in the water standing in cans, broken bottles, pots and any other kind of container.
Adult mosquitoes live in the bush and in dark corners of the house. They are very active at night when most people are asleep.
It has four stages in its life cycle. These are the egg, the larva, the pupa and the adult.
The mosquitoes lays their eggs on the surface of stagnant or stationary water. The eggs are boat-shaped and have a floating apparatus called `floats’.1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
89. LEAF ROLLER
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
153. FUNGAL DISEASES
154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
In about four to seven days, the eggs hatch open and the larvae come out. The larva is a small, very active animal with a small head, big thorax and long segmented abdomen. It has a large number of brushes. At the tail end is a breathing tube. It lies on the surface of water.
The larva changes into a comma-shaped pupa after about eight to eleven days. It has a big head with big eyes and breathing tubes.
As previously described, it is a small insect which is active at night or in dark rooms. The female hums. It has a long piercing mouth and bushy feelers.
Since malaria is caused by parasites carried by mosquitoes, it is best prevented by killing and destroying all stages of mosquitoes.
1. All adult mosquitoes should be killed by spraying houses with shelltox, DDT, and other insecticides.
2. All standing water in cans and empty containers should be drained away. Exposed water should not be allowed to remain for more than four days. Plants such as the cocoyam, banana and plantain should not be cultivated near houses, since between the leaves of these plants water will accumulate, thus, providing a suitable breeding place for mosquitoes.
3. The surface of stagnant pools which cannot be drained should be sprayed with oil. The oil spread over the water surface, prevents the larvae and the pupae of breeding mosquitoes from breathing. They will suffocate and die.
4. Quite occasionally we have large ponds of water. To prevent the breeding of mosquitoes, it is advisable to introduce some fish into such ponds. The fish will feed on the larvae and pupae.
5. Attacks by mosquitoes can be prevented by sleeping under mosquito nets. Where possible house should be mosquito-proof with mosquito netting of fine wires or muslin netting.
6. Malaria can be avoided by taking few tablets of some medicines regularly. Such medicines include: nivaquine, camoquin, daraprim, etc. The medicines destroy the malarial parasites as they enter the body and thus prevent them from causing any damage to the blood.
2. SLEEPING SICKNESS
Sleeping sickness is very common in tropical Africa. In Nigeria, it is most common in the northern states. They attack cattle and horses.it also attacks man.
In man, sleeping sickness begins with a painful swelling in the skin. This is followed with fever, headache, pains and swelling of the neck. In later stages, the patient loses weight, becomes weak, dull, drowsy, and sleepy and may finally die.
CAUSES AND SPREAD
Sleeping sickness is caused by some parasitic germs called trypanosomes. This germs are spread by a fly known as tsetse fly. When the fly bites a patient the parasites are introduced into the skin. From the skin the parasites enter the blood from where they are sent to other parts of the body including the brain.
PREVENTION OF SLEEPING SICKNESS
1. In tsetse fly areas, all bushes near houses should be cleared.
2. Since tsetse flies breed in swamps by rivers and lakes, they can be eliminated or prevented from spreading if the bushes around these rivers and lakes are cleared for considerable distances.
3. It is advisable to wear clothes which cover most parts of the body.
4. Some chemicals such as DDT, dieldrin, etc. may be used to spray to kill tsetse flies.
3. YELLOW FEVER
Yellow fever is a disease caused by a germ (virus) carried by Aedes mosquitoes.
Yellow fever usually starts with fever and headache. This is accompanied with loss of appetite, some pains and general weakness
In severe cases, however, the patient becomes very ill due to the attack of patient’s liver and kidneys by the disease germs. The patient becomes yellow and it is important to note that a large number of patients with severe attacks usually die.
PREVENTION OF YELLOW FEVER
1. All mosquitoes must be destroyed by draining stagnant water in tins and cans.
2. Houses should be sprayed regularly to kill adult mosquitoes.
3. All bushes near houses should be cleared.
4. Always sleep under mosquito-nets.
Please share if you find our article good and useful
Important topics related to the above article
1. Recognizing living things
2. Biology as an enquiry in science
3. Branches of biology
4. Processes of methods of science
5. Usefulness of science
6. Living and non-living things
7. Characteristics of living things
8. Differences between plants and animals
9. Organization of life