What are soil living organisms, Soil living organism refers to plant and animals which inhabit the soil. The types of soil organism present in the soil varies and depending on the type of soil that is questioned.. all these organisms that are present in the soil known as soil organisms off all living organism or even the microscopic organisms that are present in the soil are useful to the growth of plant as some are beneficial some are not harmful
The most commonly found groups of soil organisms include bacteria fungi virus nematodes infect, e.g termite soldier ants millipede centipede earthworm snail Reptiles and Mammals EG rodent and rats
Importance of living organisms found in the soil to an agricultural farmer
what organisms are very useful in any way especially in soil formation and improving the soil for the growth of crops
Some of this effect of soil organisms to agriculture is listed in this way
1. Soil organisms help to improve soil structure in granulation
4 organisms like the earthworm and other living organisms present in the soil act act as a catalyst for aeration of the soil
Sometimes living organisms that are present in the soil like the earthworm act as decomposers. These groups of decomposers or living organisms found in the soil helps to improve soil water percolation or drainage
Living most living present in the soil helps to decompose soil organic matter to form humus
living organisms like bacteria help to fix nutrients into the soil
One very good aspect of soil living organisms is that they help to increase the Colloidal Properties of the soil
some soil micro organisms produce acidic materials which helps to break down rocks weathering of rocks to form soil
Soil living organisms helps in the cation exchange capacity of the soil.
Through burrowing of the soil by living organisms like earthworm the live host for crop root penetration
Soil living organisms increases the minerals and nutrients status of the soil
In most cases the soil organisms helps to stabilize soil pH through the increase in soil organic matter and buffering
These are some of the importance of soil living organism
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Public finance may simply be defined as the aspect of economics which deals with government revenue and expenditure. In other words, public finance involves the financial activities of government as they relate to revenue or income, expenditure and debt operation and their overall effect on the economy. It is seen as financial activities that concern borrowing and lending, receiving and spending by the federal, state, local governments and their agencies in order to create an impact on individuals and corporate bodies.
Objectives of Public Finance
Revenue generation: Public finance assists the government to achieve an effective and efficient generation of revenue for the nation.
Improved balance of payment: Public finance also helps the government in ensuring favorable balance of payment.
They are progressive in nature: Income tax is usually administered with a graded scale, i.e. the more or the higher an income the more tax the person has to pay.
They are non-inflationary: They do not increase price and, therefore, are not inflationary because money is taken from consumers and their purchasing power is thereby reduced.
Reduce inequality of income: Direct taxes are used to ensure the redistribution of income as the poor pay less while the rich pay more. By so doing, it ensures redistribution of income.
Easy estimation of revenue: Revenue accruing from direct taxes can easily be estimated by the government or its agency.
Certainty in tax liability: In direct tax the payer knows what to pay while the government knows what is expected to be collected as tax.
They are cheap to collect: Under the RA.Y.E system, the cost of collecting direct tax is usually very small.
They are convenient to payers: Direct tax is imposed on individuals’ or firms’ income based on their ability to pay. Such payments are usually at the convenience of the payer, e.g. personal income tax is deducted from the salaries of workers by the end of the month and the remaining amount, referred to as disposable income, is free for the owner to use or spend.
Disadvantages or Demerits of Direct Taxes
They reduce savings: When tax is removed from one’s income, savings may become very difficult.