types of animal nutrition and malnutrition AND VARIOUS NUTRIENTS, animal nutrition and type of animal nutrients are essential to the development of farm animals. the essence of this study is to provide basic knowledge of how to improve yield of animal products. to make sure animal production is maximized let\’s take a look at the following.
Animal nutrition refers to the study of the dietary needs and feeding practices of animals, including their nutritional requirements, digestion, and metabolism of nutrients. Proper nutrition is crucial for the growth, development, and overall health of animals.
Animals require a balanced diet that provides essential nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water. The specific nutritional needs of animals vary depending on their species, age, weight, activity level, and reproductive status.
TYPES OF ANIMAL NUTRITION
- Identify types of feed.
- Identify types of feeding materials and equipment and types of animal nutrition
Nutrition refers to the art and science of feeding animals. Food nutrients are called nutrients. Different types of feeds contain different types of nutrients.
Types of Feeds Generally feeds may be classified into:
types of animal nutrition nutrition refers back to the art and technological know-how of feeding animals.
meals vitamins are called nutrients. exclusive kinds of feeds carries different types of vitamins. kinds of feeds typically feeds can be labeled into:
list of types of animal nutrition feeds and concentrate
- concentrates those are made up of: 1. cereals including maize, rice, millet, sorghum, and so on. those also are known as basal feeds or energy concentrates.
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- leguminous seeds along with groundnut-cultivation cake, soya beans cake, and others consisting of palm kernel cake, and cotton seed cake, these are plant protein concentrates. three. fish meal and blood meal. those are animal protein concentrates. concentrates are easily digested by way of farm animals. succulent feeds include:
- vegetables such as water leaf and shoko(inexperienced vegetable)
- forages together with pasture grasses
- silage made from green clean grass five. cane molasses specifically from sugar cane succulent feeds are very high in water and are without difficulty digested by means of animals. most green vegetation may be used as succulent feeds while they may be younger.
how to use roughages for animal nutrition
- roughage including dry grasses which normally add bulk to animal feeds. examples are hay, and straw. Hay: that is grass cut, dried and preserved for animal destiny use.
- dietary supplements and additives feed dietary supplements are added to the main feed to deliver one or greater nutrients which might be lacking inside the predominant feed. the following ought to function feed dietary supplements
- vitamins. the feed additives consist of:
- antibiotics 2. amino acids 3. hormones and so forth. this help to stabilize the feeds as well as enhance their pleasantness and storability of the feeds.
nine.2 Feed nutrients Many factors in varying combinations make up feed nutrients.
elements used for animal nutrition preparation
these elements consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, iodine, nitrogen, sulphur, calcium, iron, cobalt, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, copper, fluorine, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, selenium and chromium. primarily based on the nutrients they supply the nutrients in animal feeds can be categorized into six groups, viz: 1. carbohydrates supplying power, e.g cereals, roots and tubers, and so on
- fats offering electricity and retaining the frame temperature under control e.g. milk-milking machines, coconuts, tubers, and so forth.
- minerals they assist to carry out important body features. examples are calcium, iron, iodine, potassium, sodium and so forth.
- vitamins help to keep the animal healthy. examples are vitamins a, b, c, d, e and k
- water this is a constituent of frame fluid. it allows to everyday frame temperature, lubricates joints, transports body substances and breaks down (digestion) food.
Types of ration in animal nutrition
forms of ration rations are categorized consistent with the reason they serve within the animals\’ body-morphology
they include in:
- maintenance ration
These is the meals given to animals to keep their stay – weight constant. the ratio is so formulated as to enable the animal to hold on to its metabolic activities like respiration, digestion, blood flow complement and sound asleep ratio.
- balanced ration
supplied over and above that wished for protection purposes.
the ration is mainly formulated to of the following functions: replica, work, fattening and so forth. an instance is layers mash in a hen. three.
balanced ration this is the ration that consists of all of the vital nutrients wanted by using the body in the perfect share. the composition of a balanced ration includes proteins, carbohydrates, fat, minerals, vitamins well as water.
malnutrition of animals :
malnutrition results whilst a ration does not provide all of the critical meals nutrients in the proper proportion. that is each in exceptional and amount. this could result if the meals in the animal may be very low in calorific cost and as an end result most effective little strength is furnished.
this circumstance is referred to as marasmus. As an alternative, the foot may be very rich in one nutrient along with carbohydrates and bad in others such as minerals, proteins and vitamins.
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malnutrition, as in flawed feeding, affects in vitamin deficiency illnesses consisting of rickets (negative formation of limbs) and ketosis (low stage of blood glucose). malnutrition may lead to:
(i) retarded boom within the a
(ii) low manufacturing
(iii) bodily deformities
(v) demise. please if you find this content useful
- Concentrates types of animal nutrition
These are made up of:
1. Cereals such as maize, rice, millet, sorghum, etc. These are also referred to as basal feeds or energy concentrates. 2. Leguminous seeds such as groundnut cake, soya beans cake, and others such as palm kernel cake, and cotton seed cake. These are plant protein concentrates.
3. Fish meal and blood meal for animal nutrition purposes
These are animal protein concentrates.
Concentrates are easily digested by farm animals. Succulent Feeds These consist of:
1. Roots and tubers such as yam cassava, cocoyam, etc
2. Vegetables such as water leaf and shoko
3. forages such as pasture grasses
4. silage made from green fresh grass
5. Cane molasses mainly from sugar cane Succulent feed are very high in water and are easily digested by animals.
Most green crops can be used as succulent feeds when they are young.
C. Roughages types of animal nutrition
These consist of dry grasses which usually add bulk to animal feeds.
Examples are Hay, and Straw. Hay: This is grass cut. dried and preserved for animals\’ future use.
D. Supplements and Additives Feed for types of animal nutrition
supplements are added to the main feed to supply one or more nutrients which might be lacking in the main feed. The following could serve as feed supplements:
1. Cotton seed cake
2. Soya bean meal
3. Groundnut cake
4. Fish meal
5. Bone meal
6. Egg shell meal
7. Oyster shell meal
feed additives for types of animal nutrition
- Antibiotics 2. Amino acids 3. Hormones and so on.
These help to stabilize the feeds as well as improve on the quality and storability of the feeds.
9.2 Feed Nutrients Types of animal nutrition
Many elements in varying combinations make up feed nutrients. These elements include carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, iodine, nitrogen, sulphur, calcium, iron, cobalt, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, copper, fluorine, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, selenium and caromium.
Based on the nutrients they supply the nutrients in animal feeds can be classified into six groups, viz:
1. carbohydrates Supplying energy, e.g cereals, roots and tubers crops etc
2. Proteins Needed for growth and repair of worn-out tissues, e.g legumes such as soya bean, cotton seed, groundnut cakes, etc
3. Fats Supplying energy and keeping the body temperature under control e.g. milk, coconuts, tubers, etc.
4. Minerals They help to carry out vital body functions. Examples are calcium, iron, iodine, potassium, sodium and so on.
They help to keep the animal healthy. examples are vitamins A, B, C,D, E and K
- Water types of animal nutrition
This is a constituent of body fluid. It helps to regular body temperature, lubricate joints, transport body materials and break down (digestion) food.
Types of Ration
Rations are classified according to the purpose they serve in the animal\’s body. They include in:
1. Maintenance Ration
This is the food given to animals to keep their life-weight constant. The ration is so formulated as to enable the animal to carry on its metabolic activities like respiration, digestion, blood circulation complement and sleeping ration.
- Balanced Ration types of animal nutrition
Ration supplied over and above what is needed for maintenance purposes. The ration is specially formulated to of the following purposes: reproduction, work, fattening and so on. An example is layers of mash in poultry.
3. Balanced Ration in animal nutrition.
This is the ration that contains all the essential nutrients needed by the body in the correct proportion.
The composition of a balanced ration includes proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, vitamins well as water.
Malnutrition: Malnutrition results when a ration does not provide all the essential food nutrients in the correct proportion. That is both in quality and quantity. This could result if the food In the animal is very low in calorific value and as a result, only little energy is supplied.
This condition is called marasmus. Alternatively, the foot may be very rich in one nutrient such as carbohydrate and poor in others such as minerals, proteins and vitamins.
as in improper feeding, results in nutrients deficiency diseases such as
rickets- (poor formation of limbs) is an important part of types of animal nutrition
ketosis -(low level of blood glucose) in animal nutrition
Malnutrition may lead to:
(i) retarded growth in the a
(ii) low production
(iii) physical deformities
(iv) ill health (v) death. 9.4
Feeding Equipment for types of animal nutrition
STUDY QUESTIONS ON TYPES OF ANIMAL NUTRITION AND MALNUTRITION
- List three main types of feeds ad give two examples of each.
- Classify animal feeds based on the nutrients they supply
- Explain the following terms: i. Maintenance ration ii. Production ration
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