TYPES OF ANIMAL NUTRITION AND VARIOUS NUTRIENTS
animal nutrition and type of animal nutrients are essential to the development of farm animals. the essence of this study is to provide basic knowledge of how to improve yield of animal products. to make sure animal production is maximized let’s take a look at the following post.
TYPES OF ANIMAL NUTRITION
- Identify types of feed.
- Identify types of feeding materials and equipment.
Nutrition refers to the art and science of feeding animals. Food nutrients are called nutrients. Different types of feeds contain different types of nutrients.
Types of Feeds Generally feeds may be classified into:
animal nutrition nutrition refers back to the art and technological know-how of feeding animals.
meals vitamins are called nutrients. exclusive kinds of feeds carries different types of vitamins. kinds of feeds typically feeds can be labeled into:
(a) concentrates (b) succulents (c) roughages (d) supplements and components.
list of animal nutrition feeds and concentrate
- concentrates those are made up of: 1. cereals including maize, rice, millet, sorghum, and so on. those also are known as basal feeds or energy concentrates.
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- leguminous seeds along with groundnut-cultivation cake, soya beans cake, and others consisting of palm kernel cake, cotton seed cake, these are plant protein concentrates. three. fish meal and blood meal. those are animal protein concentrates. concentrates are easily digested by way of farm animals. succulent feeds those include:
- roots and tubers-crop consisting of yam cassava, coco-yam, and so forth
- vegetables such as water leaf and shoko(inexperienced vegetable)
- forages together with pasture grasses
- silage made from green clean grass five. cane molasses specifically from sugar cane succulent feeds are very high in water and are without difficulty digested by means of animals. most green vegetation may be used as succulent feeds while they may be younger.
how to use roughages for animal nutrition
- roughage those include dry grasses which normally add bulk to animal feeds. examples are hay, straw. hay: that is grass cut, dried and preserved for animal destiny use.
- dietary supplements and additives feed dietary supplements are added to the main feed to deliver one or greater nutrients which might be lacking inside the predominant feed. the following ought to function feed dietary supplements
- vitamins. the feed additives consist of:
- antibiotics 2. amino acids 3. hormones and so forth. these help to stabilize the feeds as well as enhance at the pleasant and storability of the feeds.
nine.2 feed nutrients many factors in varying combinations make up feed nutrients.
elements used for animal nutrition preparation
these elements consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, iodine, nitrogen, sulphur, calcium, iron, cobalt, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, copper, flourine, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, selenium and chromium. primarily based on the nutrients they supply the nutrients in animal feeds can be categorized into six groups, viz: 1. carbohydrates supplying power, e.g cereals, roots and tubers, and so on
needed for growth and repair of worn out tissues, e.g legumes such as soya bean, cotton seed, groundnut cakes, and many others
- fats offering electricity and retaining the frame temperature under control e.g. milk- milking machines , coconuts, tubers, and so forth.
- minerals they assist to carry out important body feature. examples are: calcium, iron, iodine, potassium, sodium and so forth.
- vitamins they help to keep the animal healthy. examples are vitamins a, b, c, d, e and k
- water this is a constituent of frame fluid. it allows to everyday frame temperature, lubricate joints, transport body substances and breakdown (digestions) of food.
Types of ration in animal nutrition
forms of ration rations are categorized consistent with the reason they serve within the animals body-morphology .
they include in:
- maintenance ration
this is the meals given to animals to keep their stay – weight constant. the ration is so formulated as to enable the animal to hold on its metabolic activities like respiration , digestion, blood flow complement and sound asleep ration.
- balanced ration
ration supplied over and above that wished for protection purposes.
the ration is mainly formulated to of the following functions: replica, work, fattening and so forth. instance is layers mash in hen. three.
balanced ration this is the ration that consists of all of the vital nutrients wanted by using the body in the perfect share. the composition of a balanced ration includes proteins, carbohydrates, fat, minerals, vitamins well as water.
malnutrition of animals :
malnutrition results whilst a ration does not provide all of the critical meals nutrients in the proper proportion. that is each in exceptional and amount. this could result if the meals in the animal may be very low in calorific cost and as a end result most effective little strength is furnished.
this circumstance is referred to as marasmus. as an alternative the foot may be very rich in one nutrients along with carbohydrate and and bad in others such as minerals, proteins and vitamins.
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- BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
- RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
153. FUNGAL DISEASES
- PROTOZOAN DISEASES
malnutrition, as in flawed feeding, effects in vitamins deficiency illnesses consisting of rickets (negative formation of limbs) and ketosis (low stage of blood glucose). malnutrition may lead to:
(i) retarded boom within the a
(ii) low manufacturing
(iii) bodily deformities
(v) demise. please if you find this contents useful
These are made up of:
1. Cereals such as maize, rice, millet, sorghum, etc. These are also referred to as basal feeds or energy concentrates. 2. Leguminous seeds such as groundnut cake, soya beans cake, and others such as palm kernel cake, cotton seed cake. These are plant protein concentrates.
3. Fish meal and blood meal for animal nutrition purposes
These are animal protein concentrates.
Concentrates are easily digested by farm animals. Succulent Feeds These consist of:
1. Roots and tubers such as yam cassava, cocoyam, etc
2. Vegetables such as water leaf and shoko
3. forages such as pasture grasses
4. silage made from green fresh grass
5. Cane molasses mainly from sugar cane Succulent feed are very high in water and are easily digested by animals.
Most green crops can be used as succulent feeds when they are young.
These consist of dry grasses which usually add bulk to animal feeds.
Examples are Hay, Straw. Hay: This is grass cut. dried and preserved for animals future use.
D. Supplements and Additives Feed for types of animal nutrition
supplements are added to the main feed to supply one or more nutrients which might be lacking in the main feed. The following could serve as feed supplements:
1. Cotton seed cake
2. Soya bean meal
3. Groundnut cake
4. Fish meal
5. Bone meal
6. Egg shell meal
7. Oyster shell meal
feed additives for types of animal nutrition
- Antibiotics 2. Amino acids 3. Hormones and so on.
These help to stabilize the feeds as well as improve on the quality and storability of the feeds.
9.2 Feed Nutrients
Many elements in varying combinations make up feed nutrients. These elements include carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, iodine, nitrogen, sulphur, calcium, iron, cobalt, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, copper, flourine, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, selenium and caromium.
Based on the nutrients they supply the nutrients in animal feeds can be classified into six groups, viz:
1. Carbohydrates Supplying energy, e.g cereals, roots and tubers, etc
2. Proteins Needed for growth and repair of worn out tissues, e.g legumes such as soya bean, cotton seed, groundnut cakes, etc
3. Fats Supplying energy and keeping the body temperature under control e.g. milk, coconuts, tubers, etc.
4. Minerals They helo to carry out vital body function. Examples are: calcium, iron, iodine, potassium, sodium and so on.
They help to keep the animal healthy. examples are vitamins A, B,C,D, E and K
This is a constituent of body fluid. It helps to regular body temperature, lubricate joints, transport body materials and breakdown (digestions) of food.
Types of Ration
Rations are classified according to the purpose they serve in the animals body. They include in:
1. Maintenance Ration
This is the food given to animals to keep their live – weight constant. The ration is so formulated as to enable the animal to carry on its metabolic activities like respiration, digestion, blood circulation compliment and sleeping ration.
- Balanced Ration
Ration supplied over and above that needed for maintenance purposes. The ration is specially formulated to of the following purposes: reproduction, work, fattening and so on. Example is layers mash in poultry.
3. Balanced Ration in animal nutrition.
This is the ration that contains all the essential nutrients needed by the body in the correct proportion.
The composition of a balanced ration includes proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, vitamins well as water.
Malnutrition: Malnutrition results when a ration does not provide all the essential food nutrients in the correct proportion. That is both in quality and quantity. This could result if the food In the animal is very low in calorific value and as a result only little energy is supplied.
This condition is called marasmus. Alternatively the foot may be very rich in one nutrients such as carbohydrate and and poor in others such as minerals, proteins and vitamins.
as in improper feeding, results in nutrients deficiency diseases such as
rickets- (poor formation of limbs) and
ketosis -(low level of blood glucose) in animal nutrition
Malnutrition may lead to:
(i) retarded growth in the a
(ii) low production
(iii) physical deformities
(iv) ill-health (v) death. 9.4
Feeding Equipment for Animal nutrition purposes
STUDY QUESTIONS ON TYPES OF ANIMAL NUTRITION AND MALNUTRITION
- List three main types of feeds ad give two examples of each.
- Classify animal feeds based on the nutrients they supply
- Explain the following terms: i. Maintenance ration ii. Production ration
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