effects of malnutrition on animals
Definition of balanced diet
What is balanced diet?
Balanced diet is a diet containing all six classes or types of food in the right proportion to meet the body’s requirement for growth, repair and maintenance.
In other words, balanced diet is a diet containing the correct amount of all six class of food substance required by an organism or man.
The balanced diet must contain the six food substances such as carbohydrates, protein, fats and oil, mineral salts, vitamin, and water.
In terms of the percentage composition of the food substances, balanced diet should contain 15% of proteins, 15% of fats and oil, 10% of vitamins, minerals and water, and 60% of carbohydrates.
Balanced diet should be taken at these proportions for normal growth, development and all activities of the body.
IMPORTANCE OF BALANCED DIET
I once lost a cousin to the cold hands of death, caused by the disease popularly known as Kwashiokor. The name Kwashiokor as a disease originated from Ghana, former Gold Coast in West Africa. Kwashiokor is a protein deficiency symptom.
Kwashiokor is characterized by the following
i. A child suffering from Kwashiokor will have retarded growth
ii. Any child suffering from Kwashiokor will lose weight tremendously
iii. Any child suffering from Kwashiokor will develop swollen legs, oedema and swollen feet.
iv. A child suffering from Kwashiokor will develop cracked and split skin
v. The child will have distended and swollen stomach as a result of Kwashiokor
vi. The will develop pale body
vii. There will be change in the hair, so the hair becomes reddish brown
viii. The child also develops thin and tiny legs
All these are the symptoms of malnutrition deficiency of protein. It is therefore advised to make sure we imbibe the attitude of eating balanced diet at all times.
COMPREHENSIVE EFFECT OF MALNUTRITION OF ANIMALS
manultrition is an imbalance in micro and macronutrients —either a deficit or surplus of them— which impedes the body’s capability of growing and staying healthy. As mentioned in previous articles, malnutrition can be caused by several different factors, which include but are not limited to disease, lack of access to safe drinking water, eating disorders, mental health illnesses, and even climate change. With such a wide range of causes, it is expected that the effects of malnutrition are just as varied. Keep reading for more information on the effects of malnutrition on the human body and overall health.
EFFECTS OF MALNUTRITION
As described on Livestrong.com, malnutrition occurs in stages. The imbalance in nutrients first shows in blood and tissue, followed by metabolic processes —finally, tell-tale signs and symptoms appear. The effects of malnutrition include: changes in body mass, poor wound healing, severe weight loss (cachexia), and organ failure —among others—, all of which are described below.
It is the progressive loss of lean body mass, which normally starts after age 40. During natural sarcopenia, men typically shed 22 pounds of lean body mass, with women losing half of this amount. When an individual endures undernutrition, an abnormal case of sarcopenia may ensue, triggering other effects of malnutrition, such as an increase in susceptibility to infections. Those with a case of overnutrition are not exempt of suffering sarcopenia, however, this is often camouflaged by an excess of adipose tissue around the internal organs.
Poor wound healing:
Typically, when there is a deficit in the protein, carbohydrates and vitamins, the body cannot heal. Malnutrition is not only responsible for increased risk of infections, but also of impairing and delaying healing from common diseases or surgery. In the overnourished, obese patient, poor wound healing is largely due to poor oxygenation of tissues and the inability to provide necessary nutrients and generate enough white blood cells, as well as an increased tension on wound edges.
Among the effects of malnutrition, this is perhaps one of the most evident ones. It is also very dangerous. Cachexia, or wasting syndrome, encompasses a severe weight loss, along with muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness and loss of appetite. A person with cachexia typically looks like they have shrunk and withered: the skin loses its elasticity and becomes dry. The hair falls out and there is risk of pressure ulcers, blood clots and hip fractures. People with cachexia also lose some of their motor coordination, thus being more prone to falling.
Malfunctioning kidneys can cause failure in the regulation of salt and fluid, which in turn can trigger over-hydration or dehydration.
Mental health illnesses can cause malnutrition and malnutrition can be a decisive factor in the development of mental health illnesses, such as apathy, depression, introversion, self-neglect and deterioration in social interactions.
Reduced fertility and a poor sex drive are other effects of malnutrition. Moreover, malnutrition during pregnancy can make the baby more prone to disease, strokes and developing diabetes later in life.
Impaired temperature regulation:
Especially seen in people with cachexia, people who endure severe weight loss due to undernutrition find themselves unable to store body heat, which can lead to hypothermia.
Increased risk of pulmonary infections and respiratory failure.
There is no doubt that the effects of malnutrition can be severe –and even deadly—for the population at large. However, this issue is worse yet for newborns, small children and pregnant women. As said by MotherChildNutrition.org, “beyond the age of 2-3 years, the effects of chronic malnutrition are irreversible”. This implies that malnutrition in children must be tackled before they turn two years old, or the future of that child may be impaired.
Statistically, children who are low-for-age or constantly experience weight loss are affected in the long term, namely by not reaching their optimum size and physical capacity as adults. Also, malnourished kids make sickly men and the illness also affects their mental capacity, with undernourished children typically having lower IQs than their well-fed counterparts.
Furthermore, acute malnutrition is the biggest contributor to under-five mortality. This is caused two of the effects of malnutrition: susceptibility to infections and a slow recovery from illness. Finally, undernourished mothers not only give birth to undernourished children, but are at a higher risk of perishing during or after the birth. Malnutrition causes issues such as obstructed labor and postpartum haemorrhage, with anemia –one of the effects of malnutrition— in mothers being linked to increase mortality at labour.
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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
142. FIELD MACHINES
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION