types of supporting tissues in plants, functions of plant tissues.
Plants generally, are known to possess supporting tissues which give them definite shape, strength, rigidity and resistance against external forces such as wind and water to which they are continuously subjected.
How is support provided for Herbaceous and woody plants? the supporting tissues in these set plants can be seen in plants like mango and guava of types of supporting tissues in plants
TYPES OF SUPPORTING TISSUES IN PLANTS
IN PLANTS, as we all know, there are different sizes and so supporting tissues in plants have types and shapes. this will also have to do with the plant’s internal structures
FUNCTIONS OF THE PARENCHYMA
WOOD OR THE XYLEM TISSUES AS TYPES OF SUPPORTING TISSUE
What are the Xylem tissues? Plants generally, are known to possess supporting tissues which give them definite shape, strength, rigidity and resistance against external forces such as wind and water to which they are continuously subjected. You can read my post on the anatomy and external structure of plants and crops here
TYPES OF SUPPORTING TISSUES IN PLANTS
The main types of supporting tissues in plants are PARENCHYMA, COLLENCHYMA, SCLERENCHYMA (FIBRE), AND WOOD=XYLEM. The structure of some of these types of supporting tissues in plants is practically not the same
PARENCHYMA SUPPORTING TISSUES OF PLANT
Where are the parenchyma tissues found or located plant’s internal structure?
The parenchyma tissues are found in the cortex of the stem, phloem, root, leaf, mesophyll, storage tissues and the xylem
STRUCTURE OF THE MESOPHYLL SUPPORTING TISSUE OF PLANTS
The mesophylls are composed of cells with large vacuoles and relatively thin walls. They are mainly living cells with cellulose and many air spaces within them. Parenchyma tissues are the most common and abundant plant tissue
FUNCTIONS OF THE PARENCHYMA TISSUE
The functions of the parenchyma are as follows
i. When the vacuoles are filled with sap, parenchyma tissues give firmness and turgidity to the stem of herbaceous plants
ii. The parenchyma can also store food and water
iii. They are found in the leaf and mesophyll, functioning mainly in the synthesis of food.
COLLENCHYMA SUPPORTING TISSUES OF PLANT
What is Collenchyma supporting tissue?
Collenchyma cells are usually located in the Cortex of the stem, root and in Hypodermis just beneath the epidermis
THE COLLENCHYMA TISSUE STRUCTURE
The cells of collenchyma tissues are living, elongated and unevenly thickened at the corners.
The cells are flexible thus allowing the bending and twisting strains to which the stem, roots and leaves of plants are often subjected to
THE FUNCTIONS OF A COLLENCHYMA TISSUE
What are the functions of a Collenchyma?
i. Collenchyma cells provide strength and support in young growing plant parts such as the stem, petioles and leaf blade ii. The Collenchyma cells give flexibility and resilience to the plant.
iii. They also enable the plant to bend without breaking
SCLERENCHYMA SUPPORTING TISSUE OF PLANTS
What are Sclerenchyma tissues? Sclerenchyma cells are found mainly in the pericycle, in the vascular tissues cortices of stem and roots.
The structure of the Sclerenchyma cells is that they have thickened walls containing lignin in addition to cellulose and other substances
There are two types of Sclerenchyma,
they are i. FIBRES AND ii. SCLEREIDS. 1. Fibres are elongated cells with tapering ends. These help to provide strength and flexibility to plants 2. Sclereids unlike fibres, are not too elongated but have great strength like the fibres too.
The functions of Sclerenchyma tissues of the plant
The functions of Sclerenchyma are as follows i. The Sclerenchyma fibre type gives flexibility to plants and prevents them from breaking up easily ii. Sclerenchyma provides strength, rigidity, hardness and support to plants
WOOD OR THE XYLEM SUPPORTING TISSUES OF PLANTS
What are the Xylem tissues? Then wood or Xylem tissues are mainly in the vascular tissues of stems, roots and leaves The structure of the wood or Xylem tissues is made up of many cells. They are
i. Tracheid’s ii. Vessels iii. Fibres and iv. Xylem parenchyma
TRACHEIDS TISSUES OF PLANTS:
Tracheid tissues of plants are non-living elongated, tapering cells with thickened, lignified walls which have piths that aid the passage of water and help to dissolve mineral salts.
read more about the functions of a cell in detail ii.
VESSELS: Vessels are long tabular structures that are formed by the fusion of several elongated cells placed or stacked one upon another iii. FIBRES: fibres are similar to the Sclerenchyma fibres.
They are narrow, elongated cells with very thick walls and tapering end walls
XYLEM PARENCHYMA SUPPORTING TISSUES OF PLANT STEM:
these are similar to the parenchyma tissues. They are composed of cells with large vacuoles.
The functions of the Xylem parenchyma tissues are as follows
1. The Xylem tissues provide support, strength and shape to the plant.
2. Xylem parenchyma is also a conducting tissue as it helps to conduct water and dissolve mineral salts (list of mineral salts) from the roots to the leaves. here is my post on osmosis and diffusion
PHLOEM TISSUES OF PLANT STEM
The phloem-supporting tissues are closely associated with the major supporting tissues. The tissues are located within the vascular bundles of all plants, be it in the roots, stems or leaves
The structure of the Phloem tissues is made up of four cells. These are sieve tubes, Phloem parenchyma, companion cells and Phloem fibres.
SIEVE TUBE TISSUES:
these supporting tissues are made up of elongated rows of cylindrical cells arranged vertically. The cells are living and mainly conduct food. read more here about cell
PHLOEM PARENCHYMA TISSUES:
these are similar to the parenchyma cells earlier discussed. They provide strength and support to the plant. The cells also help in food storage iii. PHLOEM FIBRES: these are special cells which are concerned with the strengthening of the organs in which they are found
they are small and short cells which are vertically elongated like the sieve tube. They assist in the conduction of food substances HOW TO TEST FOR FOOD SUBSTANCES
FUNCTIONS OF THE PHLOEM TISSUES types of supporting tissues in plants
i. The general function of the phloem tissues is to conduct manufactured food from the area of synthesis to the Areas where they are mainly needed through osmosis and diffusion. read more here
ii. Secondly, the Phloem tissues check here assist in providing support to the entire plant NOTE
The vascular tissues which are the xylem and phloem tissues, are found mainly in the roots, stems, and leaves of plants
MECHANISMS OF SUPPORT IN PLANTS
The entire body of plants, either internal or external, provides the necessary support to plants. The knowledge of the internal structure of the leaves, stem and roots will assist in the understanding of the mechanisms of support in plants
EPIDERMIS OR THE PILIFEROUS LAYER
The epidermis is the outer covering of the leaves and stem while that of the roots is called the piliferous layer. The epidermal layer is one cell thick.
Their function is mainly protection. They prevent the inner cells from injury, infection and loss of water. In some cases, only the guard cells of the leaves that have chloroplast are the only cells that can carry out photosynthesis.
CORTEX TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN PLANT
The Cortex is mainly found between the epidermis and the vascular bundles of the dicotyledonous stem. The cortex is made up of three tissues which are collenchyma-the outside, parenchyma-the middle and endodermis-the inner types of supporting tissues in plants
THE PARENCHYMA TISSUES OF PLANTS
is about three or four cells thick.
The parenchyma is made of large, thin-walled cells with many air spaces. Both cells provide strength and support.
THE ENDODERMIS CELLS OF TISSUES
is a single-layer cell which is often regarded as the starch sheath.
It stores starch hence when stained with an iodine solution will always turn blue-black.
SCLERENCHYMA TISSUES OF PLANTS
This layer is found on the outer part of vascular bundles. It consists of dead, lignified cells. It aids in strengthening the stem of the plant
WHAT ARE VASCULAR BUNDLES OF PLANTS
FUNCTIONS OF XYLEM VESSEL OF TYPE OF SUPPORTING TISSUES
The xylem is responsible for the conduct of water and dissolved mineral salts from the soil to the roots through the roots and stem.
FUNCTIONS OF PHLOEM VESSELS
Phloem is responsible for the transportation or conduct of manufactured food from the areas of synthesis to where they are needed within the plant.
WHAT ARE CAMBIUM IN PLANTS
Cambium is a type of supporting tissue which almost looks like the bone marrow in animals and is found between the xylem and the phloem.
The cambium cells are constantly dividing cells– read more on meiosis and mitosis cell division– which are called secondary thickening and are responsible for the increase in the size of the stem of so many trees.
PITH The pith is the central part of the stem. It is large and is made of the parenchyma and extends between the vascular tissues.
In flowering plants, strength and rigidity are achieved by a combination of turgor pressure and supporting tissues.
The parenchyma cells of the Pith when fully turgid, push outside and this force is restrained by the inelastic epidermis Hence when the cells of the parenchyma tissues are fully expanded, with water-turgid, they give rigidity and strength otherwise known as HYDROSTATIC SUPPORT TISSUE
In the vascular bundles, the xylem vessels and fibres which are lignified, add mechanical strength to the stems and roots of the plant. types of supporting tissues in plants
The function of the cambium TISSUE
which contributes to the growth of trees’ trunks in width, and provides the necessary support and strength to plants. The wood fibres generally make stems strong and rigid.
Other supporting tissues such as the parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma provide the necessary strength needed by plants.
USES OF FIBRES TO PLANTS
Sclerenchyma fibres known simply as fibres provide flexibility and strength.
Two of the special functions of the fibres in plants.
The fibres give mechanical functions that are the necessary strength, rigidity, flexibility and elasticity to the plant body and also enable it to withstand various strains.
plants like Hibiscus, jute and sisal are known to contain some of the strongest plant fibres hence they are making ropes, mats, clothes and sacks.
WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF THE SUPPORTING TISSUES IN PLANTS?
The supporting tissues in plants provide the following functions in plants
2. Rigidity of types of supporting tissues in plants
3. Resilience and flexibility
5. Distinct shape and
How is support provided for in Herbaceous and woody plants?
i. By turgidity, water is preserved
ii. Due to the presence of water, vacuoles inside the parenchyma cells/living cells
iii. Thickening of the walls of collenchyma cells of types of supporting tissues in plan
I. Sclerenchyma in the Cortex
II. By the xylem strengthened the deposited aligning in their walls
III. Secondary growth provides extensive xylem and bark If you have any comments or suggestions, please kindly use the comment box below.
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