types of supporting tissues in plants and their functions

 

 

types of supporting tissues in plants, functions of plant tissues. Plants generally, are known to posses supporting tissues which gives them definite shape, strength, rigidity and resistance against external forces such as and to which they are continuously subjected.

How is support provided for in Herbaceous and woody plants?

 

TYPES OF SUPPORTING TISSUES IN PLANTS

IN PLANTS
FUNCTIONS OF THE PARENCHYMA
WOOD OR THE XYLEM TISSUES
What are the Xylem tissues?

Plants generally, are knows to possesses supporting tissues which gives them definite shape, strength, rigidity and resistance against external forces such as wind and water to which they are continuously subjected.

 

 

TYPES OF SUPPORTING TISSUES IN PLANTS

The main supporting tissues in plants are PARENCHYMA, COLLENCHYMA, SCLERENCHYMA (FIBRE), AND WOOD=XYLEM.
The structure of some of these tissues are practically not the same

 

orange plant tissues
citrus plants
citrus farm

1.

PARENCHYMA SUPPORTING  TISSUES OF PLANT

Where is the parenchyma tissues found or located plant internal structure?
The parenchyma tissues are found in the cortex of stem, phloem, root, leaf, mesophyll, storage tissues and the xylem

 

STRUCTIURE OF THE MESOPHYLL SUPPORTING TISSUE OF PLANTS

The mesophylls are composed of cells with large vacuoles and relatively thin wall. They are mainly living cells with cellulose and many air spaces within them. Parenchyma tissues are the most common and in abundant of plants tissues

 

 

FUNCTIONS OF THE PARENCHYMA

The functions of the parenchyma are as follows
i. When the vacuoles are filled with sap, parenchyma tissues gives firmness and turgidity to the stem of herbaceous plants
ii. The parenchyma can also store food and water
iii. They are found in the leaf and mesophyll, functioning mainly in the synthesis of food.

COLLENCHYMA SUPPORTING  TISSUES OF PLANT

What is Collenchyma?
Collenchyma cell are usually located in the Cortex of stem, root and in the Hypodermis just beneath the epidermis

THE COLLENCHYMA STRUCTURE
The cells of collenchyma tissues are living, elongated and unevenly thickened at the corners. The cells are flexible thus allow the bending and twisting strains to which the stem, roots and the leaves of plants are often subjected to

 

THE FUNCTIONS OF A COLLENCHYMA TISSUE

What are the functions of a Collenchyma?
i. Collenchyma cells provides strength and supports in young growing plants parts such as the stem, petioles and leaf blade
ii. The Collenchyma cells gives flexibility and resilience to the plant.
iii. They also enable the plant to bend without breaking

 

SCERENCHYMA SUPPORTING TISSUE OF PLANTS

What is Sclerenchyma tissues?
Sclerenchyma cells are found mainly in the pericycle, in the vascular tissues cortices of stem and roots.

The structure of the Sclerenchyma cells is that they have thicken walls containing lignin in addition to cellulose and other substances

There are two types of Sclerenchyma,

they are
i. FIBRES AND
ii. SCLEREIDS.

1. Fibres are elongated cells with tapering ends. These help to provide strength and flexibility to plants
2. Sclereids unlike fibres, are not too elongated but have great strength like the fibres too.

 

 

The functions of Sclerenchyma tissues of plant

The functions of Sclerenchyma are as follows
i. The Sclerenchyma fibre type give flexibility to plants and prevent them braking up easily
ii. Sclerenchyma provide strength, rigidity, hardness and support to plants

 

 

WOOD OR THE XYLEM SUPPORTING TISSUES OF PLANTS

What are the Xylem tissues?
Then wood or Xylem tissues are mainly in the vascular tissues of stems, roots and leaves

The structure of the wood or Xylem tissues is made up of many cells. They are
i. Tracheid’s
ii. Vessels
iii. Fibres and
iv. Xylem parenchyma

 

i.

TRACHEIDS TISSUES OF PLANTS:

Tracheids tissues of plants are non-living elongated, tapering cells with thickened, lignified walls which have piths that aids the passage of and helps to dissolve mineral salts. read more about the functions of a cell in detail

 

ii. VESSELS: Vessels are long tabular structures that are formed by the fusion of several elongated cells places or stacked one upon another

iii. FIBRES: fibres are similar to the Sclerenchyma fibres. They are narrow, elongated cells with very thick walls and tapering end walls
iv.

 

XYLEM PARENCHYMA SUPPORTING TISSUES OF  PLANT STEM:

these are similar to the parenchyma tissues. They are composed of cells with large vacuoles. The functions of the Xylem parenchyma tissues are as follows
1. The Xylem tissues provides support, strength and shape to the plant.
2. Xylem parenchyma is also a conducting tissue as it helps to conduct water and dissolve mineral salts from the roots to the leaves.

 

 

PHLOEM TISSUES OF PLANT STEM

The phloem tissues are closely associated with the major supporting tissues. The tissues are located within the vascular bundles of all plants, be it in the roots, stems or leaves

 

The structure of the Phloem tissues are made up of four cells. These are sieve tubes, Phloem parenchyma, companion cells and Phloem fibres

i.

SIEVE TUBES TISSUES:

these are made up of elongated rows of cylindrical cells arranged vertically. The cells are living and mainly conducts food. read more here about cell
ii.

 

PHLOEM PARENCHYMA TISSUES:

these are similar to the parenchyma cells earlier discussed. They provides strength and support to the plant. The cells also helps in food storage
iii.

PHLOEM FIBRES: these are special cells which are concerned with the strenghtening of the organs in which they are found
iv.

COMPANION CELLS:

they are small and short cells which are vertically elongated like the sieve tube. They assist in the conduction of food substances

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FUNCTIONS OF THE PHLOEM TISSUES

i. The general function of the phloem tissues is to conduct manufactured food from the area of synthesis to the Areas where they are mainly needed.
ii. Secondly, the Phloem tissues assists to provide support to the entire plant

 

NOTE
The vascular tissues which is the xylem and phloem tissues, are found mainly in the roots, stems, and leaves of plants

 

 

MECHANISMS OF SUPPORT IN PLANTS

The entire body of plants, either internal or external, provides the necessary support to plants. The knowledge of the internal structure of the leaves, stem and roots will assist in the understanding of the mechanisms of support in plants

1.

EPIDERMIS OR THE PILIFEROUS LAYER

The epidermis is the outer covering of the leaves and stem while that of the roots is called piliferous layer.
The epidermal layer is one-cell thick.

 

Their function is mainly protection. They prevent the inner cells from injury, infection and loss of . In some cases only the guard cells of the leaves that has chloroplast are the only cells that can carry out photosynthesis.
2.

CORTEX TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN PLANT

The Cortex is mainly found between the epidermis and the vascular bundles of the dicotyledonous stem. The cortex is made up of three tissues which are collenchyma-the outside, parenchyma-the middle and endodermis-the inner

 

 

THE PARENCHYMA TISSUES OF PLANTS

is about three or four cells thick.
The parenchyma is made of large, thin-walled cells with many air spaces. Both cells provides strength and support.

 

 

THE ENDODERMIS CELLS OF TISSUES

is a single layer cell which is often regarded as the starch sheath.
It stores starch hence when stained with iodine solution will always turn blue black.

 

SCLERENCHYMA TISSUES OF PLANTS

This layer is found on the outer part of vascular bundles. It consists of dead, lignifies cells. It aids to strengthen the stem of plants

 

WHAT ARE VASCULAR BUNDLES OF PLANTS

Vascular bundles are found in the inner parts of the stem. It consist of xylem, phloem and cambium

FUNCTIONS OF XYLEM VESSEL
Xylem is responsible for the conduct of water and dissolved mineral salts from the soil to the roots through the roots and stem.

FUNCTIONS OF PHLOEM VESSELS
Phloem is responsible for the transportation or conduct of manufactured food from the areas of synthesis to the where they are needed within the plant.

 

WHAT ARE CAMBIUM IN PLANTS

Cambium which almost look like the bone marrow in animals is found between the xylem and the phloem. The cambium cells are constantly dividing cells which are called secondary thickening and is responsible for the increase in size of the stem of so many trees.

 

PITH

The pith is the central part of the stem. It is large and is made of the parenchyma and extends between the vascular tissues.
In flowering plants, strength and rigidity are achieved by a combination of tugor pressure and supporting tissues. The parenchyma cells of the Pith when fully turgid, push outside and this force is restrained by the inelastic epidermis

 

Hence when the cells of the parenchyma tissues are fully expanded, with water-turgid, they give rigidity and strength otherwise known as HYDROSTATIC SUPPORT

 

 

In the vascular bundles, the xylem vessels and fibres which are lignified, adds mechanical strength to the stems and roots of the plant.

The function of the cambium,

which contributes to the growth of trees trunks in width, provides the necessary support and strength to plants.

 

The wood fibres generally make stems strong and rigid. Other supporting tissues such as the parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma provides necessary strength needed by plants.

 

 

USES OF FIBRES TO PLANTS

Sclerenchyma fibres known simply as fibres provides flexibility and strength.
Two of the special function of the fibres in plants.
The fibres gives mechanical functions that is the necessary strength, rigidity, flexibility and elasticity to the plant body and also enables it to withstand various strains.
plants like Hibiscus, jute and sisal are known to contain some of the strongest plant fibres hence they are making ropes, mats, clothes and sacks.

 

WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF THE SUPPORTING TISSUES IN PLANTS?

The supporting tissues in plants provides the following function in plants
1. Strengthening
2. Rigidity
3. Resilience and flexibility
4. Protection
5. Distinct shape and
6. Conduction

 

How is support provided for in Herbaceous and woody plants?

i. By turgidity, water is preserved
ii. Due to the presence of water, vacuoles inside the parenchyma cells/living cells
iii. Thickening of the walls of collenchyma cells

 

 

WOODY PLANTS

I. Sclerenchyma in the Cortex
II. By the xylem strengthened the deposited ligning in their walls
III. Secondary growth provides extensive xylem and bark

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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34. FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS

49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
6
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS

122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

 

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