GOAT REARING AND MANAGEMENT

GOAT

Goat is a hollow horned small ruminant also belonging to the family Bovidea of the genus capra. Goat is reared for its meat, milk and hide and skin, e.g, morocco leather from Sokoto Red. Goat milk is the richest of all the milk produced by animals including man.

breeds of Goats
breeds of Goats and management of goat farm

BREEDS OF GOAT

(i) Sokoto Red (ii)Bornu Red (iii) West African long legged goat (iv)West African dwarf goat (v) Bantu (vi) Anglo-Nubian (vii) Aiphine (viii) Saanen (ix) Kano Brown (x)Bauchi type (xi)Togenburg (xii) Nubian (xiii)Boer (xiv) Anglo (xv)Nandi (xvi) East Africa Small Goat (xvii) Angora.

TERMINOLOGIES USED IN GOAT

Buck (Billy) Adult male goat
Doe (Nanny) Adult female goat
Kid A young or baby goat
Wether A castrated male goat
Kidding Act of giving birth (parturition) in goat
Chevon Meat of goat

Reasons for rearing Goats in West Africa: Reasons for rearing goats in W Africa are: for meat (food) production, I skin production, for milk production highly prolific; producing twins a triplets two times a year, hardy animals which are exceptionally healthy, easier keep, high economic value/feeding cos low, for festivals and sacrificial offerings, for prestige purposes, for income, employment, for educational purposes e teaching and research.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GOAT

(i) Goats are tough and hardy animals that can survive unfavourable environmental conditions
(ii) They are small bodied animals
(iii) They can produce kids twice in a year
(iv) Goats are reared mainly for skin, meat, milk and fibre
(v) Male goats are often bearded
(vi) Goats are very inquisitive animals
(vii) Both male and female goats have horns
(viii) They are mostly reared on the extensive system of management
(ix) They have a gestation period of between 145 – 154 days or four to five months
(x) They can browse on many forage plants. Hence, the cost of producing goats is cheap

SYSTEM OF REARING GOAT

There are three main systems of rearing goat. These are extensive, semi-intensive and intensive systems.
1.

Extensive System

: Under this system, the goat is allowed to roam about in search of pasture and water. A goat can thrive on any edible material and browses even in extreme condition of drought and rain. It can fend for itself under any condition. It requires very little care as no good housing, feeding and health care are provided. Although the system is cheap, the animals are exposed to adverse weather conditions and thieves.

ADVANTAGES OF THE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM OF REARING GOATS

(i) Low cost of labour
(ii) Low cost of feeding
(iii) Low capital investment e.g. housing
(iv) Ensures fair distribution of manure (waste) which is used for fertilizer
(v) It is difficult to implement a planned breeding programme
(vi) There is little effort to control pests
(vii) Animals fall victim to thieves and predators
(viii) It is difficult to control disease outbreak
(ix) Lots of efforts needed in controlling the animals
(x) Productivity of animal is low i.e. low growth in meat and milk production

Semi-intensive System

: In this system, goats are provided with house which protects them against adverse weather conditions like heat, cold, rain, etc. However, they are allowed to come out and graze in the pasture which is fenced round the goat house. In some cases, feed is provided for the goats in the house which includes grass, household waste and other remnants. The system needs little initial capital outlay but large labour requirement. Disease and parasite incidence are slightly high.

breeds of Goats
breeds of Goats and management of goat farm

Intensive System

: In this system, the goats are confined within, the stall in a building with limited access to grazing. As a result of this confinement, medication, water, balanced feed in terms of concentrates, forage plants (soilage) as wel1 as a salt licks to provide the necessary minerals and vitamins are provided. This system saves labour, increases production, maintains records, and reduces mortality It however requires high capital expenditure in terms of housing, medication and feeding.
Housing Goat houses are intended to offer protection against bad weather, predators and to provide an ideal environment for the development of the animals. Common features of the goat house are:

(i) It must provide shade from the sun and protection against rain.
(ii) It must be well ventilated and kept dry.
(iii) The shape may vary from the circular type to rectangular structures with series of stalls.
(iv) Walls can be made of bricks, mud or wood.
(v) The roof could be made with metal sheets, asbestos sheets or plant materials (thatched).
(vi) Bedding materials could be straw, wood shavings, etc. The materials chosen must be very absorbent.
(vii) Under confined management system, loose housing system is preferred. Animals are not tied and can therefore move about freely within the building.

(viii) Each housing unit should be provided with a hay-rack or manger for feeding hay or silage.
(ix) Gates should be strong and the fence should be made with woven wires, barbed wires or chain link.

FEEDING REQUIREMENT FOR GOATS

(i) The feed for goat must be a balanced diet, i.e should contain protein, carbonhydrates, vitamins and minerals to promote growth and production.
(ii) A goat feeds mainly on roughages, i.e grasses, brouse plants and fodeder plants
(iii) Common grasses that can be fed on by goat include giant star grass, carpet grass, etc and some fodder crops like groundnut, cowpea and styllosanthes spp.

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WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

  1. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
    19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
    20. INCUBATORS
    21. MILKING MACHINE
    22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
    23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
    24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
    25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
    26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
    27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
    28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
    29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
    30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
    31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
    32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
    33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
    34. OIL PALM
    35. USES OF PALM OIL
    36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
    37. COCOA

38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE

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  1. BALANCED DIETS
    141. LACTATION DIETS
    142. MALNUTRITION
  2. RINDER PESTS
    148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
    149. BACTERIA DISEASES
    150. ANTHRAX
    151. BRUCELLOSIS
    152. TUBERCULOSIS
    153. FUNGAL DISEASES
  3. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
    155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS

    159. TAPE WORM
    160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
    161. LIVER FLUKE
    162. ECTO PARASITES
    163. TICK

(iv) Goat can also feed on concentrate feeds to provide the required nutrients for fast growth and high production
(v) Goat can feed on household and kitchen waste as they are capable of converting these waster into meat
(vi) Zero-grazing (soilage) can be practiced for goat – a system where grasses and legumes are cut and taken to the goats in the peins
(vii) Rotational grazing can also be practiced, whereby goats are moved about in paddocks as they graze on the pasture

(viii) Feeds should be provided in accordance with production, e.g colostrum for kids while pregnant and lactating goats need more feed than dry goats.

HEALTH CARE AND SANITATION

Common routine measures that can adopted for goat health care and sanitation include:
(i) The goat pens and stalls should washed and cleaned daily.
(ii) Sick animals should be isolated treated urgently.
(iii) Dead animals should be buried.
(iv) Goats should be dewormed on regular basis.
(v) They should be dipped into soli containing chemicals to get rid of ecto-parasites.

(vi) Rotational grazing should be practised to avoid parasites bi up
(vii) The environment ought to be c at all times.
Common diseases of goat are anthrax, brucellosis, tuberculosis rinderpest, red water fever, etc. Drugs vaccines should be administered at appropriate time to prevent the outbreak of these diseases.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

  1. economic tools for nation building
  2. budgeting
  3. factors affecting the expansion of industries
  4. mineral resources and the mining industries
  5. demand and supply
  6. types of demand curve and used
  7. advertising industry
  8. factors of production
  9. entrepreneur
  10. joint stock company
  11. public enterprises
  12. private enterprises
  13. limited liability companies
  14. migration
  15. population
  16. market concept
  17. money market
  18. shares
  19. how companies raises funds for expansion

WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

  1. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
    19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
    20. INCUBATORS
    21. MILKING MACHINE
    22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
    23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
    24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
    25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
    26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
    27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
    28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
    29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
    30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
    31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
    32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
    33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
    34. OIL PALM
    35. USES OF PALM OIL
    36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
    37. COCOA

38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE

check out these recent posts

  1. loans for businesses
  2. how to establish enterprises
  3. what is a firm
  4. price equilibrium
  5. scale of preference
  6. concept of economics
  7. economic tools for nation building
  8. budgeting
  9. factors affecting the expansion of industries
  10. mineral resources and the mining industries
  11. demand and supply
  12. types of demand curve and used
  13. advertising industry
  14. factors of production
  15. entrepreneur
  16. joint stock company
  17. public enterprises
  18. private enterprises
  19. limited liability companies
  20. migration
  21. population
  22. market concept
  23. money market
  24. shares
  25. how companies raises funds for expansion
  1. BALANCED DIETS
    141. LACTATION DIETS
    142. MALNUTRITION
  2. RINDER PESTS
    148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
    149. BACTERIA DISEASES
    150. ANTHRAX
    151. BRUCELLOSIS
    152. TUBERCULOSIS
    153. FUNGAL DISEASES
  3. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
    155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS

    159. TAPE WORM
    160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
    161. LIVER FLUKE
    162. ECTO PARASITES
    163. TICK

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