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THE ORGANIZATION AND LEVELS OF LIFE

THE ORGANIZATION OF LIFE

All living thing are highly organized. This organization of life occurs in levels. The simplest structures are found at the lower levels and they interact to build up more complex structures at the next level and so on

fertilizers and manures

LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION OF LIFE

There are four levels of organization of life in organism. These are the cells, tissues, organs and systems. The simplest of all these levels is the cell.

CELL (the first level)

The cell is defined as the smallest unit of living organism. It is the first level of the organization of life. All plants and animals are made up of cells. Some of these plants and animals are made up of only one cell, therefore they are called

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UNICELLULAR ORGANISM.

Those that are made up of many or more than one cell are called MULTI-CELLULAR ORGANISM.
Examples of unicellular organism are
1. Amoeba
2. Euglena
3. Paramecium
4. Plasmodium
5. Trypanosome
6. Chlamydomonas

unicellular organisms
the cell

These organisms consist of only one cell and are capable of carrying out all of lives processes such as movement, feeding, respiration, reproduction, growth and death
Examples of cells in higher plants are phloem cells, xylem vessels, while examples of cells in higher animals are
1. Rod and cone cells in the eyes
2. Ova or eggs
3. Spermatozoa
4. Nerve cells
5. Red blood cells
6. White blood cells
7. Epidermal cells

TISSUES (second level)

A tissue is a group of similar cells forming a layer in an organism which performs a particular function. In other words, a tissue consists of two or more different cells aggregating together to perform a specific function. Examples of tissues higher plant organisms are
1. Mesophyll layer in leaves.
2. Epidermal tissues
3. Sclerenchyma tissues
4. Xylem tissues
5. Parenchyma tissues in stem
Examples of tissues in higher animals are
1. Muscles
2. Bone
3. Cartilages
4. Blood also known as liquid tissue

Examples of organisms which exist in tissue level are

  1. Hydra
  2. Algae
  3. Sponges
  4. Fungi

you can read my post on botanical names of weeds hereEDS

ORGANS (third levels)

An organ is a group of similar tissues forming a layer in an organism which performs a specific function. Examples organs in plants are
1. Leaves
2. Flowers
3. Roots
4. Stem
5. Seed
Examples of organs in animals are
1. Skin
2. Eyes
3. Ears
4. Stomach
5. Brain
6. Heart
7. Liver
8. Kidney
These organs are known to perform specific function in the body

SYSTEM (fourth level)

A system is a group of organs which work together to perform a specific function.
Examples of system in plants are
1. Root system
2. Shoot system
Examples of system in animals are
1. Digestive system
2. Reproductive system
3. Respiratory system
4. Skeletal system
5. Nervous system
6. Excretory system
7. Circulatory system

These systems work together to form an organism. For an organism to perform well, all the cell, tissues, organs and system must also function perfectly

COMPLEXITY OF ORGANIZATION IN HIGHER ANIMALS OR ORGANISMS

There is an increase in complexity from unicellular organisms to multicellular organisms. Even though the unicellular organisms can perform all life’s complexes’ they still lack vital tissues, organs or systems that is efficient and capable of ensuring their survival. As a result of these, higher organisms have advantages and some disadvantages in complexity over the unicellular organisms

ADVANTAGES OF COMPLEXITY IN HIGHER ORGANISMS

  1. IT LEADS TO CELLULAR DIFFERENTIATION
    As a result of complexity, group of similar cells are differentiated to form tissues that carry out similar functions

  2. IT LEADS TO INTERNAL STRUCTURAL SPECIALIZATION
    Differentiation leads to internal specialization in which the group of similar cells or tissues become specialized to carry out one or more functions

  3. MUTUAL INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN COMPONENT CELLS
    This simply means there is division of labor within the cells. Simply no put no one part of the cell functions alone but depend on the parts in order to be effective

  4. COMPLEXITY LEADS TO EFFICIENCY
    Complexity makes higher animals or organism more efficient in carrying out their life processes

  5. COMPLEXITY LEADS TO INCREASE IN SIZE.
    Complexity leads to increase in size because there is space between the cells for growth.

  6. IT INCREASES THE ADAPTATION TO ITS ENVIRONMENT.
    Complexity makes higher organism to become more resistant to adverse changes in the environmental condition

DISADVANTAGES OF COMPLEXITY IN HIGHER ORGANISMS

  1. Inability of the individual cells to live on its own independently
    In complexity, cells lose their independence and become increasingly dependent on one another’s activities
  2. Difficulty in acquisition of oxygen and food materials.

Increased size creates difficulty in acquisition of oxygen that is respiratory gas, food materials and loss of waste products
3. Complexity leads to slower rate of diffusion of oxygen or other respiratory gas in higher organisms.
4. Complexity leads to slower rate of expulsion of waste products from the cells
5. Complexity leads to difficulty in reproduction in higher organisms
6. Complexity leads to difficulty to regenerate in higher organisms

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WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

  1. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
    19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
    20. INCUBATORS
    21. MILKING MACHINE
    22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
    23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
    24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
    25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
    26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
    27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
    28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
    29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
    30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
    31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
    32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
    33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
    34. OIL PALM
    35. USES OF PALM OIL
    36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
    37. COCOA

38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE

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    155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS

    159. TAPE WORM
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