RESPIRATORY SYSTEM OF FARM ANIMALS

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Respiratory system includes all the organs and tissues associated with the exchange of gases between an animal and its environment, leading to the release of energy in the ecosystem.

purpose of respiration

The purpose of respiration is to supply oxygen to the cells which oxidize or bum down the food to release energy.

most important organ of respiration

The most important organ of respiration in all land animals is the lung, while aquatic animals like fish use the gills to respire. Other organs associated with respiration are the nostril and diaphragm.

the lungs

The lung is located in the thoracic cavity of farm animals. The atmospheric oxygen .passes through the nostrils, the pharynx, larnyx or voice box bronchi and to the lungs

. The movement of oxygen through these organs finally terminates in the alveoli where exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) takes place.

PROCESSES OF BREATHING

Breathing involves two processes:
(1) Inspiration (Inhalation): This involves the breathing in of air into the lungs. During the process, the following take place within and around the lungs.

(i) The diaphragm contracts and flattens out.
(ii) Intercostal muscles contract, ribs are thus raised.
(iii) Sternum moves forward.
(iv) Volume of thoracic cavity therefore increases and the pressure in the lungs is lowered.
(v) This therefore creates a high pressure in the lungs and oxygen is taken into the lungs.

(2) Expiration (Exhalation):This involves the breathing out of air from the lungs. During the process, the following take place within and around the lungs.
(i) The diaphragm relaxes and returns to its dome shape.
(ii) Intercostal muscles relax and the ribs are lowered.
(iii) The sternum moves backwards.
(iv) Volume of thoracic cavity therefore decreases; pressure in the lungs is increased and carbon dioxide is expelled from the lungs.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INHALED AIR AND EXHALED AIR

Gas Inhaled Air Exhaled Air
Oxygen 21% 16%
Carbon dioxide 0.03% 4%
Nitrogen 79% 79%
Water vapour Variable saturated

This oxygen is used to oxidize food substances in the mitochondria of the cells during tissue respiration to release energy used by farm animals for movement, growth, reproduction and other body metabolic activities.

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