TYPES OF VERTEBRAE. first of all what a vertebrae? these are animals with back bone or internal skeletal system. THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON IS MADE UP OF THE GIRDLES (PECTORAL AND PELVIC GIRDLES) AS WELL AS THE BONES OF THE LIMBS, FORE LIMBS AND HIND LIMBS
FEATURES OF THE VERTEBRAE AND THEIR FUNCTIONS
I just treated the skeletal system of living things in my previous article and I hope you had time to read it if not then follow this link TYPES OF SKELETON.
SO in this article, I am going to be treating the various types of vertebrae as stated earlier in my last article. And the following are the types of vertebrae
The cervical vertebrae are found in the neck region. In man for example, the first cervical vertebra is called the Atlas while the second vertebra is called the Axis. The third vertebra to the seventh bones are the normal cervical bones.
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ATLAS VERTEBRAE
i. The atlas vertebra has a large neural canal
ii. The atlas vertebra has a flat and broad transverse process
iii. The neural spine within the atlas is very short and sometimes absent
iv. The centrum is absent in the atlas
v. The atlas has a vertebrarterial for the passage of blood vessel
FUNCTION OF THE ATLAS VERTEBRAE
The function of the atlas
i. It allows the head to nod on it.
ii. It permits nodding of the head
iii. It holds the head firmly and allow for turning of the head
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AXIS
The Axis has a major part to play in the skeletal system of mammals mostly humans. So the most profound characteristics if the Axis are as follows
i. The axis has a broad and flat centrum
ii. The axis articulates with the atlas through the odontoid process
iii. The axis has a large, flattened neural spine
iv. The transverse process is reduced to a pin-like structure in in an axis
v. The axis has a vertebral canal
FUNCTION OF THE AXIS
The function of the Axis are as follows
i. The Axis allows the head to be turned easily as in twisting the of the neck or the head
The thoracic are found in the chest region. In man, they are twelve in number.
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE THORACIC VERTEBRAE
I. The thoracic vertebra has a long and prominent neural spine which projects upward and backwards
II. The thoracic vertebra has a pair of short transverse process
III. There is the presence of demi-facets and articular surfaces for the attachment of ribs
IV. There is a large neural canal and neural arch
V. The Axis has a large cylindrical centrum
FUNCTIONS OF THE THORACIC VERTEBRAE
The functions of the vertebrae are as follows
i. One of the functions of the thoracic vertebrae is that it aids the attachment of the ribs
ii. Muscles of the shoulder and back are attached to neural spines of the thoracic vertebrae
iii. The thoracic vertebrae assists in breathing alongside with the ribs
THE LUMBER VERTEBRAE
The lumber vertebrae are found in the upper abdominal region. In man for example, they are five in number.
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LUMBER VERTEBRAE
The characteristics of the lumber vertebrae as follows
i. The lumber vertebrae has a large, flattened transverse process
ii. The lumber vertebrae has a broad and flat neural spine
iii. The lumber vertebrae has a large and thick centrum
iv. The lumber vertebrae has a well-developed pre and post zygapophyses
v. The lumber vertebrae has two extra projection called as the (anapophysis)and (metapophysis) which serves for the attachment of abdominal muscles
THE FUNCTIONS OF THE LUMBER VERTEBRAE
The following are the functions of the lumber vertebrae
i. The lumber vert provides attachment for the abdominal muscles
ii. The lumber vertebral bone bears a considerable weight of the body
THE SACRAL VERTEBRAE
What is the sacral in the skeletal system? The sacral vertebrae is found in the lower abdominal region. In man, they are five in number. They fused together to form a structure called sacrum
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SACRAL VERTEBRAE
The characteristics of the sacral vertebrae are as follows
i. The sacral has a narrow neural canal
ii. The sacral vertebrae has a neural spine which is reduced to a notch
iii. The sacral has very large centrum
iv. The first sacral vertebrae has a pair of transverse process is large and winged-like, but the others are attached to the muscle of the back
v. The first sacral has a small neural canal which gets smaller as it enters the other vertebrae
THE FUNCTIONS OF THE SACRAL VERTEBRAE
i. The sacral vertebral bones are joined to the pelvic girdles to provide support, and strength
THE CAUDAL VERTEBRAE
The caudal vertebral bones are found in the region of some vertebrates. They decrease in size from the sacrum backwards. In man, they are four in number. They are fused together to form a structure called coccyx which does not project from the body.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CAUDAL VERTEBRAE
i. The caudal no neural spine
ii. The caudal as it stands has no neural canal
iii. The caudal vertebrae appears as a solid, rectangular mass of bone
iv. THE CAUDAL VERTEBRAE HAS NO TRANSVERSE
THE FUNCTION OF THE CAUDAL VERTEBRAE
The functions of the caudal vertebrae are listed as follows
i. The caudal supports the tail
ii. The caudal provides attachment tor tail muscles
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Capital as a factor of production. What is capital?
Capital may be defined as man made assets used in production. In other words capital refers to man- made wealth or goods used to produce other goods and services. It may also be defined as the stock of previous wealth invested in order to produce future wealth. Capital, when properly combined with other factors, produces goods and services. Examples of capital are physical cash, cutlass, hoe, machines, buildings, motor vehicles, raw materials, semi-finished goods, tools and other equipment used in the production of goods and services.
The reward for capital is interest.
Characteristics or features of capital
1. Capital is man-made: Capital in all forms is made by man before it can be used for production of goods and services.
2. Capital is durable: Capital generally are durable assets, which can be used for production.
3. Capital exists in different forms: Capital may be physical like building, motor vehicles, plants and other machinery or liquid like cash or money.
4. Capital is subject to depreciation: Capital in most cases is subject to depreciation, especially physical assets like motor vehicles, buildings, plant and other machinery.
5. It ensures large scale production: The existence of enough capital assists firms to embark on large scale production of goods and services.
6. It promotes division of labour: The availability of enough capital helps to promote the practice of division of labour in many companies.
Types of capital
The different types or forms of capital include the following:
- Fixed capital: These are assets which are not used up in the course of production. Fixed assets include those durable assets of a business that can last for a very long time. These assets or capital do not change their form in the process of production. Examples of fixed capital are land, buildings, tools, motor vehicles, plants and machinery.
- Circulatory or working capital: These are assets which are used up in the course of production. These consist of capital goods which either change their form or are used up in the process of production. Examples of working capital include raw materials, water and fuel.
- Current or liquid capital: Current capital is the type of capital that are required for the day-to-day running of productive activities. They are also changed from one form to another. Examples are finished goods and money
- Social capital: This includes those forms of capital or assets provided by the government that aid production. Examples of social capital are amenities provided by the government which are roads, electricity, water and telephones. These amenities, when they are readily available, aid the process of production.
skeletal system, supporting tissues
Importance of capital
Capital facilitates production: Availability of adequate capital to any business outfit helps in mass production of goods and services.
Capital boosts efficiency: Availability of capital to a business enterprise boosts efficiency because more machines are used in production rather than by manual labour
It assists in location of industry: The availability of social capital like electricity, goods roads and water assists to a large extent the location of a particular industry. It also affects the size and nature of the industry to be so located
It increases standard of living: Acquisition of capital by either individuals or governments helps them to have assets and other properties that aid or promote standard of living
Production of quality goods: The availability of capital to any firm aids the production of quality goods and services as a result of the purchase of modern machines.