THE HUMAN SKELETON AND FUNCTIONS1

FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN SKELETON

We are not doing justice if we fail to expand the scope of study of the human

The adult human skeletal system consists of 206 bones,

as well as a network of tendons, ligaments and cartilage that connects them. The skeletal system performs vital functions — support, movement, protection, blood cell production, calcium storage and endocrine regulation — that enable us to survive.

Animals with internal skeletons made of bone, called vertebrates,

are actually the minority on Earth. As much as 98 percent of all animals are invertebrates, meaning they do not have internal skeletons or backbones.
The amount of bones a person is born with isn’t the final tally later on. Human infants are born with about 300 bones, some of which fuse together as the body develops. By the time humans reach adult-hood, they have 206 bones. Human males grow until their late teens and females grow until two years after the beginning of their menstrual cycle, typically. This is when the growth plates on bones usually close, halting bone expansion.

WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. <ahref=”https: www.apsnet.org=”” edcenter=”” disandpath=”” fungalbasidio=”” pdlessons=”” pages=”” coffeerust.aspx”=””>COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON</ahref=”https:>

89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION

147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES

154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

The skeletons of adult males and females have some variation, primarily to accommodate childbirth. The female pelvis is flatter, more rounded and proportionally larger, for example. A male’s pelvis is about 90 degrees or less of angle, whereas a female’s is 100 degrees or more.

While they become brittle when outside of the body, bones are very much alive inside the body, being fed by a network of blood vessels from the circulatory system and nerves from the nervous system, according to Healthline.

A typical bone has a dense and tough outer layer. Next is a layer of spongy bone, which is lighter and slightly flexible. In the middle of some bones is jelly-like bone marrow, where new cells are constantly being produced for blood, according to the Merck Manuals.

Teeth are considered part of the skeletal system but they are not counted as bones. Teeth are made of dentin and enamel, which is strongest in your body. Teeth also play a key role in the digestive system.

The skeletal system has two distinctive parts: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton, according to the U.S National Library of Medicine (NLM).

The axial skeleton,/h2>< with a total of 80 bones, consists of the vertebral column, the rib cage and the skull. The axial skeleton transmits the weight from the head, the trunk and the upper extremities down to the lower extremities at the hip joints, which help humans maintain our upright posture, skeletal system and how it works to support and give

us our very shape and build. As I wrote earlier here WHAT IS SKELETON? If you haven’t read it yet please do and come back here to continue with the human skeletal functions
So what are the function of the human skeleton? The skeletal system in man functions the following ways
1.

SUPPORT

The rigid framework of the body known as the skeletal system or skeleton gives support to the body, the vertebral column, pelvic girdle and the pectoral girdle provides a framework by which the viscera can be supported.

As a result the internal organs are protected from crushing each other and the shape of the shape of the body is thereby maintained. The vertebral column or framework forms a pillar-like-structure into which the girdles and ribs are attached

2.

PROTECTION/h2>< The skeleton protects important and delicate organs of the body. Just as the skull forms a covering for the delicate tissues of the brain. It also houses the complicated parts of the inner ear. The skeletal system also protects and houses the eyeball. The vertebral column protects the spinal cord
The rib cage protects all the important organs of the thorax such as the heart, liver, lungs and blood vessels.
The pelvic girdle protects

abdominal organs such the urinary bladder and the female reproductive organs.

3.

MOVEMENT

The skeleton as a whole is made up of several small bones which are jointed and brings about movement
The skeleton provides a base for the attachment of muscles which brings about the movement of the body and limbs and gives them the ability to bend and twist in any desired direction.
The contraction and relaxation of the muscles attached to the bones also bring about movement

4.

RESPIRATION

The thoracic bone of the ribs, caged together with the muscles attached to them assists in respiration. This provision mostly assists humans in expiration and respiration
This is always seen and felt physically during respiration, not just humans but in most vertebrate. You can always see the expansion and contraction of the chest like a balloon, inflating and deflating. The connection of the bones of the rib bones to the sternum is logically the brain behind this intricate movement of the chest.

5.

MANUFACTURE OF BLOOD CELLS
The white and red blood cells are manufactured by the long bones of the body inside their marrow. This process of the blood cells being manufactured within the bone marrow is the work of a great creator. No doubt that from the unification of the male and female gametes, the cells begins to divide through so many processes like mitosis, meiosis the newly formed zygote begins a new journey of multiple expansion

6.

MUSCLES ATTACHMENT

The skeleton is and always been a comprehensive framework that gives shape to the body but most importantly that the skeleton provides places or point for the attachment of muscles.
The muscles are attached to bones by means of TENDONS.
You can read here for more about muscles

7.

SHAPE

DWANE JOHNSON popularly known as the ROCK with facelift
Sadly enough is that bones of an average human are rigid and strong which does not allow tweaking unless with little changes at a very tender age.
Because the skeletal shape comes natural. So the shape of an organism is therefore determined by the internal framework of the skeleton

8.

STORAGE OF MINERAL SALTS

The as I earlier mention, helps to store important mineral salts such as calcium and phosphorus, hence some bones serves as sources of food or minerals for some animals, like the preparation of bone meal as livestock feed

Keeping the human skeleton or skeletal system in shape and intact is of utmost importance because accident resulting to fracture or broken bone, even when treated can never give you the maximum reliance and performance of its original capacity. Although in some communities in the world, mostly in the part of Nigeria where I come from, there are local or traditional methods applied in joining broken bones. The duration it takes to heal and fix a completely broken bone varies from 2 to 4 months highest and that depending on the age of the affected person.
The traditional treatment of bones in Africa is the more reason most African soccer stars don’t bow out from the game due to bone injuries, people like the great SAMUEL ETO FIL, AUSTIN JAY JAY OKOCHA, DIDIER DROGBA and the rest I cannot be able to mention due to the scope of this article.
So in a nutshell, stay away from anything that may cause you to be injured, and play safe.

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6.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

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