poultry management practices. Rearing Poultry: poultry management and Rearing is the sum total of all the processes involved in bringing birds to maturity.
Rearing of fowl includes: providing suitable housing, feeding and health care for the chicks, growers and adult stock.
Regardless of the economic situation, human beings must feed and since domestic birds are consumable; that makes poultry farming feasible in poultry management.
what is Brooding in poultry management practices
Brooding is the term used for the management or caring for the chicks from the first day till they are about six weeks old.
The device used in which the newly hatched chicks are tended by the provision of heat until they develop enough features is called a brooder. The brooder could be in form of a special house called the brooding house.
how to Prepare and receive day-old Chicks for Rearing
the preparation through brooding to receive day-old chi(i) Clean and wash the brooder house in poultry management.
(ii) Repair broken or damaged floors, roofs and windows.
(iii) Disinfect the brooder house if you want to run a credible poultry management system
(iv) Spread wood shavings to a depth of 6 – 8cm in a brooder house
(i) Provide adequate floor space
(ii) Provide a reliable heat source
(iii) Stock chick starter feed
(iv) Wash and dry feeders and drinkers
(v) Keep handy a supply of vital medicines e.g anti-stress
(vi) Net the windows to keep away fliers and rodents
(vii) Ensure a dry brooder house before chicks arrive
(viii) Warm up the brooder house to 35oC – 39oC before chicks arrive.
(ix) Make a small shallow trench filled with water or engine oil around the brooder house to deter soldier ants invasion.
(x) in a poultry management system, Place food dip with disinfectant at the entrance of brooder house.
MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR POULTRY CHICKS
A good location is vital to the success and profitability of your poultry farm.
An ideal poultry farm should be sited where there’s a large availability of cheap land and at the same time should be close to areas with high population density.
It’s not advisable to site your poultry farm within a residential area because of the offensive odour it produces.
While it is smart to start your poultry farm in a place where the odour and noise would not disturb other people, you should also consider the security factor.
Lands in sparsely populated settlements are cheap and you would have fewer issues with community disturbance and zoning but it may be far from your market and buyers.
You need to find a balance, look for a place that is favourable to you and would also be favourable to your customers at the same time.
The following are management practices involved in rearing chicks from day old to six weeks
(i) Clean and disinfect or fumigate the brooding house before the arrival of chicks
(ii) The floor of the brooder house should be made of concrete and the walls must be rat proof
(iii) Cover the floor with clean wood shavings before the arrival of chicks
(iv) Make available clean feeders, water troughs, sources of heat (stove, lantern or electric bulbs), starter chick mash (feed) and some anti-stress drugs (vitamins and antibiotics)
(v) Provide warmth (heat energy) with charcoal pot, kerosene lamps and electric bulbs
(vi) Provide adequate ventilation water and feed regularly
(vii) Raise chicks in brooder houses where heat/warmth is regulated when necessary
(viii) Make consultations with the veterinary department to draw up a programme of vaccination for the chicks
(ix) Clean the feeders and waterers regularly and replace them with new feed and fresh water
(x) Ensure a temperature range of 32oC – 35oC, lowered by 0.2oC per day and relative humidity of 50% to 70%
(xi) Ensure that day-old chicks are allowed to rest very well, are well fed and are given anti-stress vitamins on arrival
(xii) Medicate feed or water with coccidia-stat or anti-coccidiosis at three weeks of age
(xiii) Change beddings/litter regularly (once in two weeks) to avoid the build-up of disease organisms or ammonia
(xiv) Debeak the chicks during the first four weeks if they are pullets
(xv) Deworm at six weeks (for broilers)
(xvi) Isolate or cull sick birds
(xvii) Ensure that post-mortems are carried out on dead chicks.
Why you should build Good Housing in Poultry management system
Poultry management needs good home because of the following reasons:
(i) This is to protect birds against adverse weather conditions.
(ii) helps to also to protect birds against disease attacks.
(iii) It assists to keep birds in age groups for proper management.
(iv) It protects birds from thieves.
(v) It protects birds from attack by wild animals and dangerous reptiles like snakes, and from hawks.
(vi) Housing enhances maximum productivity in birds.
(vii) Good housing helps to increase the efficiency of feeding and feed utilization.
(viii) It facilitates the management and veterinary care in the poultry management system
The chicks, immediately after hatching, are sent to the brooder house where they receive extra heat, either from a stove or electric bulb in order to maintain their body temperature because they do not have sufficient feathers to keep their body warm.
As the feathers develop, the temperature is reduced from 39°C to 27°C. The chicks are brooded on littered floors with the house completely covered with rubber sheets which can also permit cross ventilation.
Feeds, water and other medications are provided for the chicks up till the end of the 6th week, during which chicks are transferred to the growers’ house.
From the 7th-20th week, the birds, now called growers, are reared in the growers\’ house. They are either raised in a deep litter house or in a battery cage.
The buildings are netted with concrete flooring and proper roofing to ensure the comfort of the birds.
From the 21st week, the birds, now called layers, are reared in the layers’ house which is either the deep litter house or the battery cage system, just like the growers.
Feeding of poultry birds
All categories of poultry birds require a balanced diet for proper growth and development. Their ration is enriched with proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals.
Cold and clean water is kept in the drinkers while the feeds are kept in the feeders for the birds.
Feeding of the Chicken:
The feed given to the chicks is called the chick’s mash which contains high protein of about 18% to promote the rapid growth of the chicks. The feeds are provided “Al-Libitum” which means: the feeds are always in the feeder for the chicks to eat.
how to Feed the Growers in poultry management practices
The feed given to the growers is called the grower’s mash. The feed is low in protein (13%) and is given to the birds from the 7th – 20th week (of age). The birds are placed on restricted feeding.
This means that the feed given to the growers is not always in the feeders because it is regulated or calculated to prevent excessive growth and delay the maturity of the growers. Water is also provided regularly in the drinkers.
Feeding of the layers:
The feed given to the layers is called layer’s mash. This is also high in protein (16%) for proper growth and egg formation.
In addition, the diet or mash is high in bone meal or oyster shell which provides calcium and phosphorus for the formation of the egg shell. Lack of these minerals results in cracking of the eggs or soft-shelled eggs.
Health care and sanitation of birds poultry management
For proper growth and production of the birds, high level of health and sanitation must be maintained from day old chick till maturity of the birds.
Administration of drugs, vaccination and sanitation must be carried out. The vaccination programme of the poultry includes:
Age of Birds Vaccination Disease
1 – 7 days
18 – 20 days Intraocular (NV1/0) through the eye Gumboro Vaccine IBDV through drinking water Against Newcastle disease
Against gumbo disease
3 – 4 week NDV Lasota through drinking water Against Newcastle disease
3 – 4 weeks
6 weeks Fowl pox vaccine (FPV) stab in wing web
Komorov (NDVK) through intra-muscular injection Fowl pox disease
8 weeks Komorov Vaccine (NDVK) through intra-muscular injection Newcastle disease
Apart from these vaccinations, other drugs are given to the birds through the water to either prevent or cure certain diseases. Cleanliness of the poultry farm is also necessary.
To ensure proper sanitation in poultry farm
(i) Sick or dead birds must be removed from the building.
(ii) Visitors should not be allowed into poultry houses.
(iii) The buildings should be disinfected regularly.
(iv) Water bath containing chemicals should be provided where visitors and workers must dip their legs before entering into the poultry house.
(v) Drinkers should be washed thoroughly.
(vi) Wet litter and mouldy feeds should be detected quickly and removed. (vii) •External parasites like lice should be controlled by dipping birds in solutions containing chemicals to kill the parasites.
no matter the level of investment, this poultry management system must be adhered to for proper production
(viii) Internal parasites should also be controlled by regular deworming with certain chemicals to kill the parasites.