VITAMINS AND THEIR DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS


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VITAMINS AND THEIR DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS

WHAT ARE VITAMINS?
Vitamins are organic food substances required to by man and other animals only in small quantity or amount for normal growth and healthy development of the body.
Inadequacy or lack of any of these vitamins can lead to nutritional deficiency in animals generally.
A typical example of nutritional disease is GOITRE. The goiter is caused as a result of insufficient iodine in diet of man. Goiter is characterized by the swollen of the thyroid gland in the neck.

GROUPS OF VITAMINS
Vitamins are grouped into two main classes. They are
i. FATS SOLUBLE VITAMINS
These vitamins that are soluble only in FATS. E.g. Vitamins A, D, E and K

ii. WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS
These are vitamins that are soluble only in water. Examples are vitamin-B complex and Vitamin C. some members of the vitamin B-complex are vitamins B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), B3 (Niacin), B5 (Pantothenic), B6 (Pyridoxine), B12 (Cyano Cobalamine), Folic acid etc.

Sources, functions and deficiency symptoms of some vitamins are outlined below

VITAMINS=======SOURCES======FUNCTIONS=======DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS
1. VITAMIN A (RETINOL)

SOURCES=========liver, eggs, fish, milk, palm oil and fresh vegetables

FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN A
i. Vitamin A is required for growth of the body cells and skin
ii. Vitamin A is required for proper vision and maintenance of the eye

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN A
I. LACK OF VITAMIN A CAUSES NIGHT BLINDNESS
II. LACK OF VITAMIN A REDUCES RESISTANCE TO DISEASES

2. VITAMIN B (thiamine)
SOURCES OF VITAMIN B
======Yeast, unpolished rice, milk, beans and palm oil

FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN B (thiamin)

i. This type of vitamin is required for proper growth
ii. Vitamin B-thiamin is required for proper functioning of heart and nervous system

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN B THIAMINE
i. Lack of vitamin B thiamin causes beriberi (a condition of loss of appetite, weight and tiredness) and Paralysis

3. VITAMIN B (RIBOFLAVIN)

SOURCES OF VITAMIN B-RIBOFLAVIN====Yeast, soya beans, eggs, milk and green vegetables

FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN==RIBOFLAVIN
I. Vitamin B riboflavin is required for growth,,
II. Vitamin B riboflavin is required for healthy skin
III. Riboflavin is required for proper functioning of the eyes
IV. Vitamin B Riboflavin is required for the formation of Co-Enzymes involved in ce4llular respiration

Deficiency symptoms of Vitamin B Riboflavin
i. Lack of vitamin B Riboflavin causes slow growth
ii. Lack of vitamin B Riboflavin in the body causes Dermatitis

4. VITAMIN B (NIACIN)
SOURCES OF VITAMIN B
NIACIN===yeast, beans milk and palm oil, wine, yam and vegetables

FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN B NIACIN
i. Vitamin B Niacin is needed for cellular respiration

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN B NIACIN

I. LACK OF VITAMIN B NIACIN IN THE BODY CAUSES PELLAGRA, WHICH IS A TYPE OF SKIN AND DIGESTIVE PROBLEM

5. VITAMIN B (CYNACOBALAMIN)

SOURCES OF VITAMIN B-Cyna Cobalamine===kidney, liver, fish and milk

FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN B CYNACOBALAMINE

I. This type of vitamin B is used for the production red blood cells

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN B CYNA COBALAMINE

I. LACK OF VITAMIN B Cyna Cobalamine in the body causes Pernicious anaemia.

6. VITAMIN C (ASCORBIC ACID)

SOURCES OF VITAMIN C====fresh fruits, and green vegetables

FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN C

i. Vitamin C aids wound healing
ii. Vitamin C helps to resist diseases and infections in the body

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN C

I. Lack of vitamin C in the body causes SCURVEY. This characterized by bleeding gum, poor healing of wounds and low resistance to infections

7. VITAMIN D (Calciferol)

SOURCES OF VITAMIN D CALCIFEROL===fish, milk, egg, liver.
It can also be formed in the skin by sunlight

FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN D CALCIFEROL

I. Vitamin D is needed for strong bones
II. Vitamin D is essential for teeth formation and development

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN D

i. Lack of Vitamin D in the body causes Rickets and Osteomalacia

8. VITAMIN E (Egosterol)

SORCES OF VITAMIN E=====gree3n vegetables, egg, butter and liver

FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN E

i. Vitamin E promotes fertility in animals

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN E

I. Lack of Vitamin E in the body leads to reproductive failures
II. Lack of vitamin E can also cause pre-mature abortion and sterility

9. VITAMIN K (PHYLLOQUINONE)

SOURCES OF VITAMIN K=====FRESH GREEN VEGETABLES, LIKE CABBAGE AND SPINACH

FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN K

i. Vitamin K aids in blood clotting

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN K
i. Lack of Vitamin in the body causes haemorrhages
ii. In ability of the blood to clot in time

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