West African clearing house

WEST AFRICAN CLEARING HOUSE (WACH) WACH is a multi-lateral clearing house which comprises 15-members central banks of West African states of Nigeria, Republic of Benin, Cote d’Ivoire. Niger, Senegal, Togo, Burkina Faso, the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania and Sierra Leone.

West African clearing houses. What does the west African clearing stands for and was it formed?

Formation of west African clearing house. (WACH)

West African Clearing House (WACH) was established in June, 1975 with its headquarters in Freetown, Sierra Leone. It has English and French as the official working languages.

WACH is a multi-lateral clearing house which comprises 15-members central banks of West African states of Nigeria, Republic of Benin, Cote d’Ivoire. Niger, Senegal, Togo, Burkina Faso, the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania and Sierra Leone. west african clearing house

Objectives and functions of west African clearing houses WACH

  1. To promote the use of members’ national currencies for intra-sub-regional transactions
  2. To bring about savings in the use of foreign reserves
  3. To promoters monetary co-operation in the sub-region
  4. To encourage trade liberalization

1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

2. DISEASES

3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS

4. ORGANIC MANURING

5. FARM YARD MANURE

6. HUMUS                  

7. COMPOST

8. CROP ROTATION

9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING

10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE

11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

12. ORGANIC MANURING

Characteristics or features of private enterprises

  • Private individuals provide the capital: Private individuals that owned the enterprises are the people to raise capital for the establishment of the enterprise
  • Ownership belongs to private individuals: Private individuals, e.g. sole proprietorship or partnership are the ones that own the business enterprise
  • Objective of business is to make profits: The purpose of setting up the business enterprise is to make profits for the owners of the enterprise
  • Accountability is to the owners: The ions of the business enterprises are usually accounted for and submitted to the owners of the enterprise
  • Owners borne the risk of the less: In the event of business failure t ’liquidation, the owners will have to bear entire risks associated with such failures.
  • Owners manage the business themselves: The daily operations of a business enterprise is controlled and -managed by the owners of the enterprise.

(b)      Public enterprises in: Public enterprises are the types of organisations which are owned, controlled and managed by the government, business organisations are owned by either the local, state or federal government and their major objective is to provide social services to the people. They are associated with such names as authority, corporation, boards and commissions. Examples of public enterprises are public  corporations and companies owned by government such as the Power Holding Co-operation of Nigeria (P.H.C.N.), the Nigerian Ports Authority (N.P.A.), Nigerian Television Authority (N.TA.), Nigerian Railway Corporation (N.R.C.) and Nigerian Telecommunications Plc. (N.I.T.E.L.).

Characteristics or features of public enterprises

  •  Government provides the capital:

Government provides the necessary capital required to set up public enterprises.

  •  Ownership belongs to the government: Public enterprises are usually set up by Acts of legislation and  the enteiprise belongs to the government.
  •  Objective is to provide social services: The major reason of setting up public enterprises is to provide social amenities and services to the people at reduced cost.
  •  Management is accountable to the government: The management of public enterprises is directly accountable to the government that set up the enterprise.
  •  Government and tax payer borne the risks: The risks associated with public enterprises are usually borne by the government and tax payers who provided the capital for setting up the enterprises.
  •  Board of directors manage the business: The public enterprise is managed by board of directors appointed by the government.
  •  Public enterprise is a legal entity: Public enterprise is a corporate body or a legal entity, meaning that it can sue and be sued in its own right.

27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY

28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT

29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY

30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING

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