What is pastoral farming system and and ranching?
2. Pastoral farming
pastoral farming system involves the rearing of animals that feed on forage crops (grasses and legumes), such as goats, sheep and cattle. Pastoral farming could take any of these two forms:
(a) Pastoral Ranching system of farming
Advantages Of pastoral farming
1.pastoral nomadic or pastoral farming. provides a source of animal protein.
2. The pastoral farming system is not too costly because natural grasses are fed upon by the animals.
3. Less labour is required as one man can cater for a large number of animals under pastoral farming system
Disadvantages of pastoral farming
1. It is highly laborious for the herdsmen particularly the nomads.
2. Animals can only be reared in grassland areas where they can have access to feed.
3. The productivity of the animals is affected by availability of pasture crops. The latter is affected by seasonal changes.
WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
16. CROP ROTATION
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. <ahref=”https: www.apsnet.org=”” edcenter=”” disandpath=”” fungalbasidio=”” pdlessons=”” pages=”” coffeerust.aspx”=””>COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM
77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
115. MAMMARY GLAND
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM
PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION
127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
133. PROTEIN FATS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
4. Mixed Farming
This is the combination of crop production with animal production on the same farmland.
Advantages of mixed farming system
1. It ensures steady supply of income for the farmer.
2. Mixed system of farming ensures against failure in one of the two enterprises (that is, crop production and animal production.
3. The farmer will be able to replenish the soil for crop cultivation using the manure from the animals.
4. The farmer can also supply feeds to the animals from the crop products.
5. The farmer and his family have access to good food obtained from both his crops and animals.
6. The animals may serve as source of power on the farm in a mixed system of farming e.g bullock can be used to pull ploughs or harrows.
Disadvantages of mixed farming system
1. mixed farming requires a great deal of knowledge, skill, time and labour from the farmer.
2. When animals are reared on the same land where crops grown without fence, the animals may damage the crops.
3. Mixed system of farming is expensive to operate – especially in respect of the skill personnel needed.
5. Ley system of Farming
Advantages of ley system of farming
1. The pastures, especially the legume species help to replenish the soil fertility in Ley system of Farming
2. Soil erosion is controlled through the system because at no point in time is the land exposed completely for too long a time
3. Ley system of Farming also helps to reduce the build-up of pests and disease agents on a farmland.
It is not easy to practice, hence the system is not popular in most communities
6. Taungya Farming system
This is the system whereby food crops are grown alongside trees. It involves clearing forest land (forest reserve). and food crops. Later, tree seedlings are planted in between crops to continue on the land after the food crops have been harvested.
Advantages of Taungya farming system
1. The fertility of the soil is usually high for crops to use for maximum productivity.
2. Taungya Farming system is an economic way of replacing unwanted forest with desirable tree species.
3. The land is always protected against erosion.
4. The timber seedlings are protected by the food crops in their early stage of life.
5. The Taungya Farming system provides a source of income to the government.
Disadvantages of Taungya Farming system
1. Taungya Farming system leads to destruction of natural forests which may result in the loss of many forest resources.
2. At times, the needed forests may not develop because most farmers do not cater for the forest trees as they are left to die under heavy cropping with cassava or plantains.
3. The Taungya Farming system does not allow the cultivation of permanent crops such as cocoa, rubber, and oil palm.
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