types of farming system. pastoral, ranching and mixed farming

types of farming system. pastoral, ranching and mixed farming. a farming system is s defined as the process and engagement of various of farming styles like ranching, mixed farming, mixed cropping, taungya farming in Nigeria, ley farming, pastoral farming, Nomadic farming etc.
in this post you will learn the various system of farming, their advantages and disadvantages
 
 
types of farming system also depend on the people , culture and religious affiliation. another crucial aspect affecting types of farming system if the availability of labour, technological advancement and rate of literacy.
 
like in most parts of Africa where land are owned by communities and families, these types of farming communities largely practice land tenure system of farming, as a result subsistence agriculture is important here and so mixed cropping system of farming is practiced.
 
 
 

What is pastoral farming system and and ranching?

2. Pastoral farming
pastoral farming system involves the rearing of animals that feed on forage crops (grasses and legumes), such as goats, sheep and cattle. Pastoral farming could take any of these two forms:

pastoral farming system
pastoral farming system

(a) Pastoral Ranching system of farming

  This is a system of keeping animals in a fenced expanse of land containing forages (grasses and legumes) for tem to feed on. Examples are Obudu cattle ranch, in Cross River State, Igarra cattle ranch in Edo State.
 
 
 
 
(b) Nomadic herding type of pastoral farming
This involves the movement of grazing animals from one place to another in search of fresh pasture and ‘ water. This is mainly practiced by the Fulani nomads of northern Nigeria. This system is also called pastoral nomadic or pastoral farming.

 

Advantages Of pastoral farming

1.pastoral nomadic or pastoral farming. provides a source of animal protein.
2. The pastoral farming system is not too costly because natural grasses are fed upon by the animals.
3. Less labour is required as one man can cater for a large number of animals under pastoral farming system

 

Disadvantages of pastoral farming
1. It is highly laborious for the herdsmen particularly the nomads.
2. Animals can only be reared in grassland areas where they can have access to feed.
3. The productivity of the animals is affected by availability of pasture crops. The latter is affected by seasonal changes.

 

 

4. Mixed Farming

Mixed system of farming
This is the combination of crop production with animal production on the same farmland. 
Mixed system of farming is mainly practiced on commercial farms where large units of livestock such as poultry, pigs, etc. are kept along side the cultivation of crops like maize, rice, and vegetables.
 
yeah don’t get me wrong, although mixed farming  majorly involve large scale agriculture but is also practice by small peasant farmers where there are not enough land for extensive farming

 

Advantages of mixed farming system
1. It ensures steady supply of income for the farmer.
2. Mixed system of farming ensures against failure in one of the two enterprises (that is, crop production and animal production.
3. The farmer will be able to replenish the soil for crop cultivation using the manure from the animals.
4. The farmer can also supply feeds to the animals from the crop products.
5. The farmer and his family have access to good food obtained from both his crops and animals.
6. The animals may serve as source of power on the farm in a  mixed system of farming e.g bullock can be used to pull ploughs or harrows.

 

 

Disadvantages of mixed farming system
1. mixed farming requires a great deal of knowledge, skill, time and labour from the farmer.


2. When animals are reared on the same land where crops grown without fence, the animals may damage the crops.


3. Mixed system of farming is expensive to operate – especially in respect of the skill personnel needed.

5. Ley system of Farming 

This system of farming is not so common in our communities except in experimental stations.  Ley system of Farming involves alternating arable or production with the growing of forage crops on a piece of land,
 
instance, a farmer may use a piece of land to grow food crops about two years and then use it for growing forage crops to animals for some other years.
 
The land is re-ploughed and planted with food crops again. The farm land is referred to as ‘ley’ during the period it is covered with forages.

 

Advantages of ley system of farming
1. The pastures, especially the legume species help to replenish the soil fertility in Ley system of Farming


2. Soil erosion is controlled through the system because at no point in time is the land exposed completely for too long a time
3. Ley system of Farming also helps to reduce the build-up of pests and disease agents on a farmland.

It is not easy to practice, hence the system is not popular in most communities

 forage crops usually become weeds on the farm when the farm is cropped with food crops and they are often difficult to replicate.

 

6. Taungya Farming system

This is the system whereby food crops are grown alongside trees. It involves clearing forest land (forest reserve). and food crops. Later, tree seedlings are planted in between crops to continue on the land after the food crops have been harvested.

The Taungya Farming system is practiced in forest reserves in the southern part of Nigeria where the State Governments allow the use of forest reserves arable farming.

 

 

Advantages of Taungya farming system


1. The fertility of the soil is usually high for crops to use for maximum productivity.


2. Taungya Farming system is an economic way of replacing unwanted forest with desirable tree species.
3. The land is always protected against erosion.


4. The timber seedlings are protected by the food crops in their early stage of life.
5. The Taungya Farming system provides a source of income to the government.

 

 

Disadvantages of Taungya Farming system


1. Taungya Farming system leads to destruction of natural forests which may result in the loss of many forest resources.


2. At times, the needed forests may not develop because most farmers do not cater for the forest trees as they are left to die under heavy cropping with cassava or plantains.


3. The Taungya Farming system does not allow the cultivation of permanent crops such as cocoa, rubber, and oil palm.

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You can read some of most interesting topics below

1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION

37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS

42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT

48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING

75. SOIL WATER

80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. 
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. 
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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