What is pastoral farming system and and ranching?
2. Pastoral farming
pastoral farming system involves the rearing of animals that feed on forage crops (grasses and legumes), such as goats, sheep and cattle. Pastoral farming could take any of these two forms:
(a) Pastoral Ranching system of farming
Advantages Of pastoral farming
1.pastoral nomadic or pastoral farming. provides a source of animal protein.
2. The pastoral farming system is not too costly because natural grasses are fed upon by the animals.
3. Less labour is required as one man can cater for a large number of animals under pastoral farming system
Disadvantages of pastoral farming
1. It is highly laborious for the herdsmen particularly the nomads.
2. Animals can only be reared in grassland areas where they can have access to feed.
3. The productivity of the animals is affected by availability of pasture crops. The latter is affected by seasonal changes.
4. Mixed Farming
This is the combination of crop production with animal production on the same farmland.
Advantages of mixed farming system
1. It ensures steady supply of income for the farmer.
2. Mixed system of farming ensures against failure in one of the two enterprises (that is, crop production and animal production.
3. The farmer will be able to replenish the soil for crop cultivation using the manure from the animals.
4. The farmer can also supply feeds to the animals from the crop products.
5. The farmer and his family have access to good food obtained from both his crops and animals.
6. The animals may serve as source of power on the farm in a mixed system of farming e.g bullock can be used to pull ploughs or harrows.
Disadvantages of mixed farming system
1. mixed farming requires a great deal of knowledge, skill, time and labour from the farmer.
2. When animals are reared on the same land where crops grown without fence, the animals may damage the crops.
3. Mixed system of farming is expensive to operate – especially in respect of the skill personnel needed.
5. Ley system of Farming
Advantages of ley system of farming
1. The pastures, especially the legume species help to replenish the soil fertility in Ley system of Farming
2. Soil erosion is controlled through the system because at no point in time is the land exposed completely for too long a time
3. Ley system of Farming also helps to reduce the build-up of pests and disease agents on a farmland.
It is not easy to practice, hence the system is not popular in most communities
6. Taungya Farming system
This is the system whereby food crops are grown alongside trees. It involves clearing forest land (forest reserve). and food crops. Later, tree seedlings are planted in between crops to continue on the land after the food crops have been harvested.
Advantages of Taungya farming system
1. The fertility of the soil is usually high for crops to use for maximum productivity.
2. Taungya Farming system is an economic way of replacing unwanted forest with desirable tree species.
3. The land is always protected against erosion.
4. The timber seedlings are protected by the food crops in their early stage of life.
5. The Taungya Farming system provides a source of income to the government.
Disadvantages of Taungya Farming system
1. Taungya Farming system leads to destruction of natural forests which may result in the loss of many forest resources.
2. At times, the needed forests may not develop because most farmers do not cater for the forest trees as they are left to die under heavy cropping with cassava or plantains.
3. The Taungya Farming system does not allow the cultivation of permanent crops such as cocoa, rubber, and oil palm.
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119. BUSH BURNING
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