types of farming system. pastoral, ranching and mixed farming

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heterotrophic organisms
types of farming system. pastoral, ranching and mixed farming. a is s defined as the process and engagement of various of farming styles like ranching, mixed farming, mixed cropping, taungya farming in Nigeria, ley farming, pastoral farming, Nomadic farming etc.
in this post you will learn the various system of farming, their advantages and disadvantages
 
 
types of also depend on the people , culture and religious affiliation. another crucial aspect affecting types of if the availability of labour, technological advancement and rate of literacy.
 
like in most parts of Africa where land are owned by communities and families, these types of farming communities largely practice land tenure system of farming, as a result subsistence agriculture is important here and so mixed cropping system of farming is practiced.
 
 
 

What is pastoral and and ranching?

2. Pastoral farming
pastoral involves the rearing of animals that feed on forage crops (grasses and legumes), such as goats, sheep and cattle. Pastoral farming could take any of these two forms:

pastoral farming system
pastoral

(a) Pastoral Ranching system of farming

  This is a system of keeping animals in a fenced expanse of land containing forages (grasses and legumes) for tem to feed on. Examples are Obudu cattle ranch, in Cross River State, Igarra cattle ranch in Edo State.
 
 
 
 
(b) Nomadic herding type of pastoral farming
This involves the movement of grazing animals from one place to another in search of fresh pasture and ‘ water. This is mainly practiced by the Fulani nomads of northern Nigeria. This system is also called pastoral nomadic or pastoral farming.

 

Advantages Of pastoral farming

1.pastoral nomadic or pastoral farming. provides a source of animal protein.
2. The pastoral  is not too costly because natural grasses are fed upon by the animals.
3. Less labour is required as one man can cater for a large number of animals under pastoral

Disadvantages of pastoral farming
1. It is highly laborious for the herdsmen particularly the nomads.
2. Animals can only be reared in grassland areas where they can have access to feed.
3. The productivity of the animals is affected by availability of pasture crops. The latter is affected by seasonal changes.

 

WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. <ahref=”https: www.apsnet.org=”” edcenter=”” disandpath=”” fungalbasidio=”” pdlessons=”” pages=”” coffeerust.aspx”=””>COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON</ahref=”https:>

89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION

147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES

154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

4. Mixed Farming

Mixed system of farming
This is the combination of crop production with animal production on the same farmland. 
Mixed system of farming is mainly practiced on farms where large units of livestock such as poultry, pigs, etc. are kept along side the cultivation of crops like maize, rice, and vegetables.
 
yeah don’t get me wrong, although mixed farming  majorly involve large scale agriculture but is also practice by small peasant farmers where there are not enough land for extensive farming

Advantages of mixed
1. It ensures steady supply of income for the farmer.
2. Mixed system of farming ensures against failure in one of the two enterprises (that is, crop production and animal production.
3. The farmer will be able to replenish the soil for crop cultivation using the manure from the animals.
4. The farmer can also supply feeds to the animals from the crop products.
5. The farmer and his family have access to good food obtained from both his crops and animals.
6. The animals may serve as source of power on the farm in a  mixed system of farming e.g bullock can be used to pull ploughs or harrows.

 

Disadvantages of mixed
1. mixed farming requires a great deal of knowledge, skill, time and labour from the farmer.

2. When animals are reared on the same land where crops grown without fence, the animals may damage the crops.

3. Mixed system of farming is expensive to operate – especially in respect of the skill personnel needed.

5. Ley system of Farming 

This system of farming is not so common in our communities except in experimental stations.  Ley system of Farming involves alternating arable or production with the growing of forage crops on a piece of land,
 
instance, a farmer may use a piece of land to grow food crops about two years and then use it for growing forage crops to animals for some other years.
 
The land is re-ploughed and planted with food crops again. The farm land is referred to as ‘ley’ during the period it is covered with forages.

 

Advantages of ley system of farming
1. The pastures, especially the legume species help to replenish the soil fertility in Ley system of Farming

2. Soil erosion is controlled through the system because at no point in time is the land exposed completely for too long a time
3. Ley system of Farming also helps to reduce the build-up of pests and disease agents on a farmland.

It is not easy to practice, hence the system is not popular in most communities

 forage crops usually become weeds on the farm when the farm is cropped with food crops and they are often difficult to replicate.

 

6. Taungya

This is the system whereby food crops are grown alongside trees. It involves clearing forest land (forest reserve). and food crops. Later, tree seedlings are planted in between crops to continue on the land after the food crops have been harvested.

The Taungya  is practiced in forest reserves in the southern part of Nigeria where the State Governments allow the use of forest reserves arable farming.

 

 

Advantages of Taungya

1. The fertility of the soil is usually high for crops to use for maximum productivity.

2. Taungya Farming system is an economic way of replacing unwanted forest with desirable tree species.
3. The land is always protected against erosion.

4. The timber seedlings are protected by the food crops in their early stage of life.
5. The Taungya Farming system provides a source of income to the government.

 

Disadvantages of Taungya Farming system

1. Taungya Farming system leads to destruction of natural forests which may result in the loss of many forest resources.

2. At times, the needed forests may not develop because most farmers do not cater for the forest trees as they are left to die under heavy cropping with cassava or plantains.

3. The Taungya Farming system does not allow the cultivation of permanent crops such as cocoa, rubber, and oil palm.

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