types of farming system. pastoral, ranching farm

types of farming system. pastoral, ranching and mixed farming.
types of farming system or a farming system is s defined as the process and engagement of various farming styles like ranching, mixed farming, mixed cropping, taungya farming in Nigeria, ley farming, pastoral farming, Nomadic farming etc.
in this post, you will learn the various system of farming, their advantages and disadvantages
types of farming systems also depend on the people, culture and religious affiliation.
another crucial aspect affecting types of the farming system is the availability of labour, technological advancement and rate of literacy.
like in most parts of Africa where land is owned by communities and families, these types of farming system communities largely practice land tenure system of farming, as a result, subsistence agriculture is important here and so a mixed cropping system of farming is practised.

What are pastoral types of farming system and and ranching?

2. Pastoral farming system
pastoral farming system involves the rearing of animals that feed on forage crops (grasses and legumes), such as goats, sheep and cattle. Pastoral farming could take any of these two forms:

(a) Pastoral Ranching system of farming

  this type of farming system is a system of keeping animals in a fenced expanse of land containing forages (grasses and legumes) for them to feed on. Examples are the Obudu cattle ranch, in Cross River State, the Igarra cattle ranch in Edo State.
Nomadic herding types of pastoral farming
This involves the movement of grazing animals from one place to another in search of fresh pasture and \’ water.
This is mainly practised by the Fulani nomads of northern Nigeria. This system is also called pastoral nomadic or pastoral farming.

Advantages Of pastoral farming

1. pastoral nomadic or pastoral farming. provides a source of animal protein.
2. The pastoral farming system is not too costly because natural grasses are fed by animals.

3. Less labour is required as one man can cater for a large number of animals under a pastoral farming system

Disadvantages of pastoral farming

1. It is highly laborious for the herdsmen, particularly the nomads.
2. Animals can only be reared in grassland areas where they can have access to feed.
3. The productivity of the animals is affected by the availability of pasture crops. The latter is affected by seasonal changes.

 Mixed Farming types of farming

Mixed system type of farming
This is the combination of crop production with animal production on the same farmland. 
Mixed system type of farming is mainly practised on commercial farms where large units of livestock such as poultry, pigs, etc. are kept alongside the cultivation of crops like maize, rice, and vegetables.
yeah don\’t get me wrong, although mixed farming  majorly involve large scale agriculture but is also practised by small peasant farmers where there are not enough land for extensive farming— you can read my post on land tenure system here

Advantages of mixed system type of farming

1. It ensures steady supply of income for the farmer.
2. Mixed system type of farming ensures against failure in one of the two enterprises (that is, crop production and animal production.

3. The farmer will be able to replenish the soil for crop cultivation using the manure from the animals.
4. The farmer can also supply feeds to the animals from the crop products.

5. The farmer and his family have access to good food obtained from both his crops and animals.
6. The animals may serve as source of power on the farm in a  mixed system of farming e.g bullock can be used to pull ploughs or harrows.

Disadvantages of mixed system types of farming

1. mixed farming requires a great deal of knowledge, skill, time and labour from the farmer. read about skilled labour here

2. When animals are reared on the same land where crops grown without fence, the animals may damage the crops.

3. Mixed system of farming is expensive to operate – especially in respect of the skill personnel needed.

5. Ley system types of Farming 
This system of farming is not so common in our communities except in experimental stations.  Ley system of Farming-read more here– involves alternating arable or production with the growing of forage crops on a piece of land,
instance, a farmer may use a piece of land to grow food crops for about two years and then use it for growing forage crops to animals for some other years.
The land is re-ploughed and planted with food crops again. The farmland is referred to as \’ley’ during the period it is covered with forages.


Advantages of ley system types of farming
1. The pastures, especially the legume species help to replenish the 2. Soil erosion is controlled through the system because at no point in time is the land exposed completely for too long a time

3. Ley system of Farming also helps to reduce the build-up of pests and disease agents on a farmland.

It is not easy to practice, hence the system is not popular in most communities

 forage crops usually become weeds on the farm when the farm is cropped with food crops and they are often difficult to replicate.


Taungya type of Farming system

This is the system whereby food crops are grown alongside trees. It involves clearing forest land (forest reserve). and food crops. Later, tree seedlings are planted in between crops to continue on the land after the food crops have been harvested.

The Taungya Farming system is practised in forest reserves in the southern part of Nigeria where the State Governments allow the use of forest reserves for arable farming.


Advantages of the Taungya farming system

1. The fertility of the soil is usually high for crops to use for maximum productivity.

2. Taungya Farming system is an economic way of replacing unwanted forests with desirable tree species.
3. The land is always protected against erosion.

4. The timber seedlings are protected by the food crops in their early stage of life.
5. The Taungya Farming system provides a source of income to the government.


Disadvantages of Taungya Farming system

1. Taungya Farming system leads to the destruction of natural forests which may result in the loss of many forest resources.

2. At times, the needed forests may not develop because most farmers do not cater for the forest trees as they are left to die under heavy cropping with cassava or plantains.

3. The Taungya Farming system does not allow the cultivation of permanent crops such as cocoa, rubber, and oil palm.

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