ORGANIC MANURE? organic manures are the types of manures which is derived from animal, human and plant residues which contain plant nutrients in complex organic forms.
Organic manure refers to the decayed plant and animal products which have been carefully prepared to supply nutrients to plants or crops. Organic manure is a form of natural nutrients or fertilizer that enriches crop yield. There are processes for making organic manure but let us look at the types of organic manure first.
Types of Organic manure
Organic manure, also known as natural or biological fertilizer, is a type of soil amendment that is derived from organic sources such as animal waste, compost, and plant residue. Organic manure is an excellent alternative to chemical fertilizers, which can have harmful effects on the environment and soil quality over time.
One of the primary benefits of organic manure is that it improves soil fertility and promotes healthy plant growth. Unlike chemical fertilizers, which provide only a narrow range of nutrients, organic manure contains a broad spectrum of essential nutrients, including nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. These nutrients are released slowly over time, providing a steady supply of food for plants and promoting strong root development.
There are many different types of organic manure, each with its own unique properties and benefits. Here are some common types of organic manure:
- Animal manure: Animal manure, such as cow, horse, and chicken manure, is a rich source of nutrients and organic matter. It contains high levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, which are essential for plant growth. Animal manure can be used fresh or composted to create a high-quality fertilizer.
- Compost: Compost is a mixture of decomposed organic matter, such as leaves, grass clippings, and food scraps. Composting helps to break down the organic matter and release nutrients in a form that plants can use. Compost is an excellent source of organic matter and nutrients, and it can improve soil structure, water retention, and nutrient availability.
- Green manure: Green manure is a cover crop that is grown and then tilled back into the soil to improve soil fertility. Common green manure crops include clover, alfalfa, and vetch. Green manure adds organic matter to the soil, fixes nitrogen from the air, and helps to suppress weeds and soil-borne diseases.
- Vermicompost: Vermicompost is compost that is made by using worms to break down organic matter. The worms consume organic matter and excrete nutrient-rich castings that are high in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Vermicompost is a nutrient-rich soil amendment that can improve soil structure, water retention, and plant growth.
- Seaweed: Seaweed is a rich source of trace minerals and other nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Seaweed can be harvested from the ocean and used as a soil amendment or added to compost. Seaweed can help to improve soil structure, water retention, and nutrient availability.
In conclusion, there are many types of organic manure that can be used to improve soil fertility and promote healthy plant growth. Each type of organic manure has its own unique properties and benefits, and choosing the right type of manure will depend on your specific soil and plant needs.
(a) Green Manure: Green manure is a type of organic manure formed from leguminous crops and other fresh plants which are ploughed into the soil while they are still growing. The plants have to be ploughed in when they are very young, i.e. before the flowering stage so that they will decay rapidly to release the nutrients to the soil.
The crops which are suitable for green manure include legumes like mucuna, cowpea, Centrosema, calopogonium, pueraria and grasses.
Farm-Yard type of organic Manure:
Farm-yard manure is a type of organic manure that is a combination of animal wastes such as animal dung or feaces, urine and animal bedding which collectively undergo series of decomposition before the manure is applied to the soil. Poultry birds, generally, produce organic manure of a higher nutrient quality than larger animals. Large animals like cattle feed on grasses, which are high in fibre content which cannot be allowed to complete its decomposition before it can be applied to the soil, otherwise, the heat produced during
Compost organic Manure
: Compost manure is the type of organic manure formed as a result of the rotting down of plants and animal remains in heaps or pits before the residue is applied to the soil. This type of organic manure is difficult to produce due to the scarcity of animal remains and droppings
There are two ways of preparing compost manure. These are:
(i) Pit Method: This is suitable for areas where rainfall is low such as in the savanna areas.
(ii) Stack Method: This is suitable for areas where rainfall is high such as in the south. Both methods require the same materials and duration.
The Pit Method of making compost organic manure
Size of the Pit: The size of the pit will depend on the quantity of compost needed, but a dimension of 180cm x 120cm x 60cm could be appropriate.
Materials Required: Three pits (A, B, C) are dug. Grasses and legumes – to form the compost, ash or urine – to remove traces of acidity, animal dung – to introduce bacteria of decomposition, and a little water – to provide a moist environment for the agent for decomposition.
Procedure: In pit A, a layer of grass and legume is put at the bottom. Then a layer of animal dung is added followed by a thin layer of ash. Water== Waterborne diseases is further sprinkled on the materials to make it moist but not wet. The whole process is repeated.
Layers are added in this manner until the pit is filled stick called a tester at the side.
Check If the operation is successful by feeling the tester. If the tester is hot, you can continue, but if cold, it means the operation is a failure and the whole process hula he repeated.
After two weeks, the materials are turned with a shovel and packed into pit B. This turning provides air for the compost so that the bacteria continue to work on the decaying materials. Pit A is filled with fresh materials. After another two weeks, pit B is turned Into C and A turned into
B. This process continues until the last pit is reached. Compost prepared in this manner can be applied directly to the soil but planting operation cannot be done; otherwise, the maybe burnt.
using Bush Fallowing to improve organic manure of the soil
: Bush fallowing is the practice in which farmlands are left to lie fallow after one or two years of cultivation. The purpose of this is to allow nutrients to revert to the soil. When a piece of land is placed on continuous cropping, year after year, the nutrients are completely used up from the soil without replacement.
Fallowing as a method of replenishing soil nutrients
(i) When land is allowed to fallow, plant food has time to form in the soil as a result of humus accumulation.
(ii) The system helps to check some plant diseases because when farms are left to fallow for many years, disease organisms lose their hosts and die.
(iii) Fallowing helps to check erosion
(iv) Land becomes relatively cheap to replenish with lost nutrients as farmers may not need fertilizers.
(v) Fallowing helps to dislodge pests from farm plots due to the absence of hosts during fallowing.
(vi) Fallowing also improves soil physical properties like soil structure, texture, etc.
(vii) Fallowing improves the activities of soil flora and fauna.
The period of allowing the land to rest in order to re-grow back to the bush and rebuild the used-up nutrients is called a fallow period.
. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT