PROBLEMS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION OR INDUSTRIAL GROWTH IN WEST AFRICA AND SOLUTION

PROBLEMS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION OR INDUSTRIAL GROWTH IN WEST AFRICA AND SOLUTION

The following factors hinder, limit or are responsible for the relatively low level of industrial growth and development in West Africa.

  • Shortage of raw materials: Lack of sufficient raw materials available to industries hinders large scale production.
  •  Insufficient capital: Access to finance or loan is very difficult and this tends to limit industrial development.
  •  High degree of foreign dependence: Most products made in West Africa are of low quality when compared with those in developed countries. Hence, people prefer or depend on foreign goods.

goods and services 2

  • Poor quality of industrial labour: West Africa has a large pool of illiterate population that provides the personnel for our industries. This affects efficiency and quality of products.
  •  Low purchasing power of the populace: Large scale poverty in West African countries makes people to have low purchasing power.
  •  Inadequate power supply: There are frequent disruptions of power supply in industrial areas and many areas do not even have power supply.
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  20.  

WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

  1. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
    19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
    20. INCUBATORS
    21. MILKING MACHINE
    22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
    23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
    24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
    25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
    26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
    27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
    28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
    29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
    30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
    31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
    32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
    33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
    34. OIL PALM
    35. USES OF PALM OIL
    36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
    37. COCOA
    38.
    39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
    HOLING AND LINING
    40. YAM
    41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
    42. DEPT OF PLANTING
    43. SPACING OF YAM
    44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
    45. STORAGE OF YAM
    46. STAKING OF YAM
    47. HARVESTING OF YAM
    48. COWPEA
    JUTE
    49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
    50. FORAGE GRASSES
    51. SILAGE
    52. PASTURE
    53. TYPES OF PASTURE
    COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
    54. GRASSES
    55. LEGUMES
    56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
    57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
    58. HAY SILAGE
    59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
    60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
    61. MAIZE SMUT
    62. RICE BLAST
    63. MAIZE RUST
    64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
    65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
    66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE

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  •  Competition with foreign goods: Because of the better quality of foreign goods, goods produced by our local industries are usually patronized.
  • Shortage of entrepreneurs: Owing to lack of capital, loan facilities and other factors, reliable investors are not common.
  •  Poor management: Corruption, embezzlement and negligence of duty are very common in West African countries and these are indicators of poor management.
  •  Political instability: Frequent changes in governments and incessant civil wars in West African countries discourage foreign investors.
  • 1nadequate transport and communication facilities: Transportation network like roads and railways and communication facilities are grossly inadequate in West Africa.
  •  Small market for industrial goods: West African countries do not have large enough markets that can accommodate industrial goods produced.
  •  Inadequate skilled manpower: Skilled manpower required for high industrial growth is grossly inadequate in developing countries
  •  Bad government policies: Certain government policies towards industrialization are bad and do not encourage industrial growth.

SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN WEST AFRICA

  • Acquisition of skill: Skills required in industrial operations should be acquired a by people through regular training.
  •  Good government policies: That should be good government policies to encourage and protect local industries
  •  Active government participation: There should be active government participation in industrial development, i.e. co-ownership of industries.
  •  Incentives to local industries: The should be incentives to local industry e.g. tax holiday, interest-free loans and subsidies.
  •  Provision of transport am communication facilities: These should be provided to ensure easy distribution of goods produced.
  • Creation of industrial zones: This also provide a conducive environment with a all the infrastructural facilities for the industries.
  • Establishment of industrial banks: – Industrial and other development banks should set up be set up to provide loans to industrialists.
  • Stable government: There should be ruble government in order to attract foreign investors.
  • Local sourcing of raw materials: here should be exploitation of raw materials locally for industries.
  • Organization of management courses: Management courses should be organized on regular basis for workers.

  • Building and maintenance of infrastructural facilities: Infrastructural facilities such as roads, telephones, water and electricity should be built and maintained regularly
  • Establishment of more power plants: Power plants such as thermal or hydroelectricity plants should be established to boost power supply to industries.

SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN WEST AFRICA

The federal government has adopted the following ways or methods of encouraging industrialization in Nigeria.

  1. Tax concessions to pioneer industries: The federal government gives tax concession to pioneer industries for a specified number of years during which the industry will not pay tax.
  • Protection of infant industries: The government protects infant industries through high import duties, and outright ban or placement of quotas on imported commodities which compete with those of home industries.
  • Development of infrastructural facilities: Government has also embark on the construction of better road networks especially the express roads, efficient telecommunications, electricity and water supply system.
  • Establishment of industrial estates: The government should also establish industrial estates and thus reduce the problem of locating industries in urban arrears.
  • Establishment of Nigerian Enterprises Promotion Decree: The Nigerian Enterprises Promotion Decree of 1972 was set up by the Federal Military Government in an attempt to transfer part of the profits generated in Nigerian to the local people.

  • Establishment of financial institutions: The government has established financial institutions to aid private enterprises, e.g. Nigeria Bank for Commerce and Industry, and Nigerian Industrial Bank.

  • Establishment of higher institutions: The government has also established universities and colleges of technology with the aim of developing human resources.

  • Relaxation of industrial laws: Government should also contribute towards industrialization by relaxing some industrial laws such as the indigenization policy.
  • Formulation of development plans: Nigeria also undertakes development plans aimed at controlling resource allocation.

  1. Relaxation of import control: There is also the relaxation of import control by the government, e.g the importation of machinery and raw materials.
  1. Increased industrial loans: An increase in industrial loan will enable more business men to obtain loans and establish more industries.
  1. Initiation of industrial policies: Government can equally initiate certain industrial policies such as privatization and commercialization to boost industrial development.

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