Fishing techniques includes the use of hand in gathering, spearfishing, netting, angling and trapping.
commercial and artisanal fishers use different techniques, and also, sometimes, the same techniques. Recreational fishers fish for pleasure or sport, while commercial fishers fish for profit. Artisanal fishers use traditional, low-tech methods, for survival in third-world countries, and as a cultural heritage in other countries.
Mostly, recreational fishers use angling methods and commercial fishers use netting methods.
There is an intricate link between various fishing techniques and knowledge about the fish and their behaviour including migration, foraging and habitat. The effective use of fishing techniques often depends on this additional knowledge
Types of fishing techniques
Which techniques are appropriate is dictated mainly by the target species and by its habitat
Fishing techniques can be contrasted with fishing tackle. Fishing tackle refers to the physical equipment that is used when fishing, whereas fishing techniques refers to the manner in which the tackle is used when fishing
Common types of fish
Some common types of fish include
Common name of fish and their Scientific name
Tilapia Sarotherodo niloticus
Cat fish Haters branchus spp
Snake head fish Channa obscura
Trunk fish Gymnarchus niloticus
Milk fish Chanos chanos
Moon fish Citharinus spp
Mullet Mugil spp
Carp Cyprilius carpia
Mud fish Clarias spp
African bony tongue Heterotis niloticus
uses of fish and fish products
9.5 Use of Fish and Fish Products
Fish is eaten by man as part of his diet and is a good source of protein.
2. Source of income
Fishes are sold for money and this provides a major source of income to fish farmers ad fish traders
- Fish watching
Man derive great pleasure from watching fish in private and public ponds, television screen and movies.
- Scientific study
Fish are used for scientific experiments and researches t to increase knowledge
- RecreationSport fishing as a recreation man has played important role in the social lives of people who are engage in it. In other words, it has contributed to their happiness.
- Improvement of human health
Some species of tilapia and top minnows have been used to control malaria in the tropies since they prey in mosquitoes.
Some by-products of fish
are useful to man. Examples include:
(a) Fish meal: This is obtained by grinding dried parts of fish. It is in animal protein source, especially in poultry feeds.
(b) Fish oil: Oil can be extracted from fish and used by man. There are two kinds of fish oil.
Types of fish oil
The one that is Extracted from the fishes themselves which is used in making paints
, enamels, vanishes, candles, and soap;
and the one which is extracted from fish liver, usually from the cod fish (stock fish) known as cod liver oil. This contains a lot of vitamins and is used as medicine, especially for babies.
(c) Fish manure: The discarded parts of fish as well as those fishes that have gone bad are heaped to decompose and are used as manure for growing crops.
(d) Fish skins: The skins from fishes especially sharks, are used as leather for bags, shoes and other leather works.
Fishing methods , Processing and Preservation of Fish
- Methods of Fishing
There are different methods used to catch fish from the water. These methods include:
(a) Use of nets: Nets are made of nylon and are used for fishing both in large and small bodies of water. Net fishing is very efficient because many fishes can be caught at a time with a net.
There are different forms of net used for fishing. These are:
(i) The cast or throw nets
(ii) The gill nets
(iii) The lift nets
(iv) The hand net or scoop net
(b) Use of hooks: A hook is made of metal rod which is curved at the tip. Fishing hooks are of two kinds:
(i) The pole and line hook: This consists of a hook to which a twine is tied, which ‘in turn, is tied to a long pole or stick.
A weight or float (could be a small stone or metal nut) is tied to the rope to enable the hook go down the water. Fish is attracted to the hook by a bait (e.g. earth worm) attached to it. When a fish attempts to eat the bait, ils mouth is hu to the hook and the fisher quickly throws oul the honk the water to remove the fish.
The method is time and labour consuming. Only one fish can be caught with this method it a time.
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