CAPITAL FORMATION, ACCUMULATION AND CONSUMPTION PROCESS
what is Capital formation or capital accumulation refers to increasing a country’s stock of real capital. That is, it refers to increasing the net investment in form of fixed assets.
capital accumulation explained
For a country to be able to accumulate more capital, there must be increase in savings and a reduction in consumption of consumer goods.
The rate of economic development of any country is directly related to the rate of capital formation. In most advanced countries like Britain, Japan and the United States of America, stocks of capital are high as a result of high rate of capital formation whereas in many developing countries of the world,
there is a low rate of capital accumulation as a result of low per capita income and low savings, which results in what is termed vicious circle of poverty.
Causes of low capital formation in West African countries
The causes of low capital formation in West African countries include:
Existence of a vicious circle of poverty:
The existence of low income results in low savings and in turn results in a shortage of capital for investment, which results in low investment.
Low investment leads to low, output, and eventually to low income. The low income result again to low savings and the vicious circle continues.
Wasteful expenditure: Many governments in West African countries are involved in wasteful expenditure as they embark on prestigious but productive ventures thereby resulting low capital formation
Inequitable distribution of income:
In many West African countries, only individuals are rich while the poor. Even the few rich ones spend their money on prestigious projects which are unproductive and these generally give rise to low capital formation.
Higher propensity to consume:
In many West African countries, the propensity to consume by the people is higher than the propensity to save.
There is a high taste for imported goods, e.g. cars, television, rice and clothing materials. This high propensity to consume results in low savings and investment.
- loans for businesses
- how to establish enterprises
- what is a firm
- price equilibrium
- scale of preference
- concept of economics
- economic tools for nation building
- factors affecting the expansion of industries
- mineral resources and the mining industries
- demand and supply
- types of demand curve and used
- advertising industry
- factors of production
- joint stock company
- public enterprises
- private enterprises
- limited liability companies
- market concept
- money market
- how companies raises funds for expansion
Low saving: Many working class people in West African do not have the habit of saving and are usually poor. This may be due to their low earnings, which may not be enough for them to spend not to talk of saving.
This usually affects negatively capital formation can be solved when the above problems are looked into by the various governments of
West African countries.
4.13 CAPITAL CONSUMPTION
what is capital consumption process
Meaning: capital consumption refers to the using up of existing capital stock and not replacing worn-out capital goods used in production.
When fixed assets like building, motor vehicles, plants and machinery are being used and tear of these capital goods which reduce their value that is referred to in economic as consumption or depreciation.
During the period of capital consumption enough saving are not made to maintain and place depreciating capital goods or assets.
If a country finds it difficult to maintain its stock of capital, either by making provision for appreciation or her inability to replace worn-out on capital or consuming capital and this affects the standard of living of the people negatively.