types of cattle management

TYPES OF CATTLE, CATTLE MANAGEMENT AND TERMS ASSOCIATED WITH CATTLE.. cattle is one of the most important farm animals. Cattle management refers to the practices and techniques involved in the care and husbandry of cattle. It includes various aspects such as breeding, feeding, health care, housing, and the general well-being of the animals. Proper cattle management is crucial for maintaining the health and productivity of the herd. Here are some key areas of cattle management:

  1. Breeding: Breeding involves selecting suitable bulls and cows for mating to produce offspring with desired traits. This may include considerations such as breed characteristics, genetic traits, and productivity goals. Breeding can be done through natural mating or artificial insemination.
  2. Feeding and Nutrition: Providing adequate nutrition is essential for the growth and productivity of cattle. A balanced diet should include roughage (such as hay or grass), concentrates (grains or supplements), minerals, and water. The nutritional requirements may vary depending on the age, breed, and purpose of the cattle.
  3. Health Care: Maintaining the health of the herd is crucial for preventing diseases and maximizing
  1. productivity. Regular vaccinations, deworming, and veterinary check-ups are essential. Cattle should be monitored for signs of illness or injury, and prompt treatment should be provided when necessary.
  2. Housing and Facilities: Proper housing and facilities are necessary to provide a comfortable and safe environment for cattle. The housing should protect them from extreme weather conditions and provide adequate ventilation. Facilities such as feeding areas, watering points, and handling equipment should be designed for efficient management practices.
  3. Pasture Management: Pasture management involves ensuring sufficient grazing land and proper utilization of pastures. Rotational grazing, where cattle are moved between different grazing areas, helps prevent overgrazing and maintain healthy pastures. Fencing and water sources should be provided to control grazing patterns.
    • Record-Keeping: Maintaining accurate records is important for effective cattle management. Records may include breeding and calving dates, health treatments, vaccinations, weight gain, and other relevant information. This data helps track the performance of individual animals and the overall herd.
    • Marketing and Sales: If the purpose of the cattle operation is to sell animals or their products, marketing strategies need to be developed. This may involve identifying potential buyers, participating in auctions or sales, and maintaining good relationships with buyers.

Types of Cattle

There are different types of cattle depending on the purpose for which they are kept. These include:

  1. Beef type cattle:

Those kept for beef or meat production purposes, e.g. Ndama. Muturu. Keteku. etc.

  1. Dairy cattle:

Those kept for milk production purposes, e.g. white Fulani. Buraji. etc.

  1. Work cattle:

These are cattle kept for work purposes. They arc used to do odd jobs in farms like
pulling of ploughs, e.g. Sokoto gudali. Kanrej. etc.

  1. Dual-purpose cattle:

These are kept for more than one purpose. They could he kept for milk production and at the same time for beef production, e.g. Sokoto gudali.

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some basic terms associated with the management of cattle

  1. Oestrus cycle: the time interval between one heat period and another.
  2. Gestation Period: This is the period of pregnancy. In cows it last for 281-283 days i.e. about 9 months.
  3. Udder: The breast of cows.

Types of Cattle

There are different types of cattle depending on the purpose for which they are kept. These include:

  1. Beef-type cattle: Those kept for beef or meat production purposes, e.g. Ndama. Mature. Keteku. etc.
  2. Dairy cattle: Those kept for milk production purposes, e.g. white Fulani. Buraji. etc.
  3. Work cattle: These are cattle kept for work purposes. They arc used to do odd jobs in farms like
    pulling ploughs, e.g. Sokoto gudali. Kanrej. etc.
  4. Dual-purpose cattle: These are kept for more than one purpose. They could he kept for milk production and at the same time for beef production, e.g. Sokoto gudali.
 Breeds of cattle

The following are common breeds of cattle in Nigeria

(i) Humpless Cattle: Krui, Ndama, Muturu
(ii) Humped or Xebu Cattle: Red bororo. Sokoto gudali, Shuwa Cattle, white Fulani

(b) Foreign or exotic breeds: These can be grouped into two:
(i) Dairy breeds: e.g. Holstein Friesian. Brown Swiss. Red Den and New Jersey.
(ii) Beef breeds: e.g. Hereford. Aberdeen Angus. Red devon. Etc.

(c) Management Systems in Cattle  types of cattle management
Cattle can be managed under any of the following systems:

Extensive System of cattle management

: This is the traditional method of cattle production. It is commonly practised in tropical countries of this system, cattle are moved from one grazing land to the other depending on the availability of grass.

Most cattle in Nigeria are reared under this system. When become scarce in the dry season, the animals are moved Is where there is denser vegetation. The animals are In graze under the control of a herdsman.

Advantages of the extensive system of cattle management
  1. The system is cheap since no money is spent on feeding the animals
  2. Some parasites such as ticks and worms can be checked since the animals do not remain in one place for a long time.

Disadvantages of the extensive system of cattle management and terms associated with it

  1. Much land is required to practice the system.
  2. The animals do not perform maximally in terms of milk or beef production especially when dry season comes.
  3. No adequate records can be kept about the animals.
  4. Animals are exposed to various dangers such as weather hazards
  5. Diseases cannot be easily controlled.

(ii) Intensive System of rearing cattle

: Under the intensive system of management the cattle are housed in pens or kraals. Feed and water are in the pens.

1. It does not wasteland

2. Records are easily kept
3. Weather hazards are minimized
4. Diseases and pests are easily controlled
5. The performance of the animals is very good in terms of meat and milk production

1. It is very expensive due to the cost of erecting the buildings
2. Contagious disease is often a problem

iii. Semi-Intensive System of keeping cattle

This is where cattle are kept with some restriction and are usually provided accommodation at night or during bad weather. It is a bridge between the extensive and intensive systems of management.

(f) Management Practices in the Rearing Cattle

The life of cattle can be divided into three stages like poultry, namely:
1. Calf hood
2. Growers
3. Adulthood.

(a) Rearing of calves:

Calves could be regarded as animals from birth till they attain the age of six months after which they become growers.

(i) Calf Buildings or Pens:

Calves are best reared indoors in the tropics as calves are likely to be easily infected with internal parasites around in pastures.

Besides, calves do better with young and palatable grasses. It is difficult to keep grassing fields in these conditions. Such should be cut from the pastures and fed to calves in Pens. The roof of a calf pen is simple. It may be of zinc or asbestos roof over a concrete floor. This should be well drained. Side walls are not necessary. The sides of the pens are screened to keep off flies

(ii) Management of growing Calves

: Immediately after calving a good cow takes care of the calf and endeavours to protect and secure it, The dam immediately begins to remove the mucus covering the body of the calf by licking it.

The farmer has to remove this it he mother is careless. The umbilical cord has to he cut and treated with iodine to check infection. The calf may suckle the dam. If the dam is milked for human use. the calf may be bucket-fed

. Whichever is the method, the milk produced by the dam for the first three to four days called colostrum must be fed to the calf. In general, a calf is fed a milk ration up to 8% of its body weight a day or 4 to 6 litres, in three feeds. The milk to be fed must be warmed to 29°C, the body temperature of a calf, cold milk may result in calf diarrhoea called Accour. The bucket used in feeding must be scrubbed with soap after each feeding.

It should be remembered that a calf does not function until it is a few weeks old. At birth, the capacity of is 70% of the four stomach chambers, whereas in the cow it is 7%. Therefore, a calf can only take solid when it is up to three weeks old. A suitable ratio at this stage is
Palm kernel meal – 50 parts
Guinea corn dusa – 25 parts
Groundnut cake – 25 parts

Feed 1 to 1.5kg of this ration in a day. The milk feed is then reduced: young succulent grasses-are ted in addition. The calf is finally weaned from milk when 12 to 14 weeks old.
At every stage, water must be made available to calves every day.

(ii) Dehorning of cattle :

This is the process of preventing the appearance of the horns. Dehorning is essential with dairy animals. Bull calves proposed for work should not be dehorned. This is to provide points of attachment for farm implements.

Dehorning should be performed when a calf is a week old.
This is done by cauterizing the horn bud by either rubbing it with a caustic stick till near bleeding or by the use of cylindrical hot iron pressed for a second on the rim of the horn bud in types of cattle management
Dehorning helps to reduce space occupied by animals and prevent injuries arising from fighting

(iv) Castration in cattle management

: This is preventing the development of the entire of testicles. This is best done when a bull calf is ten days old A very sharp knife, crusher or rubber ring is used. lilts pin pose.

The Burdizzo bloodless castrator can be used safely at any age. Castration helps to prevent indiscriminate breeding and also makes animals fatten up faster.

(v) Earmarking: For the purpose of distinguishing the animals, the ‘ calves are marked on the ear as early as possible with a plier. punching tool.

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(vi) Nose Puncturing: Bull calves proposed for work should have their noses punctured. Nose rings should be inserted. These rings help to control the animals later.

(b) Rearing of Growers (Heifers): The management of heifers is divided into two stages. The first stage is from six months old till the time of first service which is approximately 27 months. The other stage is from the time of the first service till calving at approximately three years and one month.

It is cheaper to rear heifers outdoors under rotational grazing where grasses are adequate types of cattle management

check out this post on range land and grass management.

Grazing is sufficient during the wet season.

During the dry season, grazing should be supplemented with good silage, hay or potato vines. In addition. 1 to 1.5kg of concentrate should be given. The concentrate could be made up as follows:

1 ½ parts cotton seed.
1 part guinea corn seed.
½ part dusa (guinea chaff).
3% mineral mixture.
3 parts guinea corn seeds is an important feed supplement in types of cattle management
1½ parts groundnut cake.
3% mineral mixture.
The mineral mixture could be made out with
40 parts of common salt.
20 parts of bone meal.
40 parts of lime.

Heifers come on heat when 20 months old. The best age for the first service is 27 months. Gestation (period of pregnancy) is about 9 months or 283 days.

During the gestation period, the constitution and the life of the heifer change. It continues to grow to bear calves and prepare to produce milk for the young calf. The heifers should be given better treatment, particularly in feeding and handling, in the dry season, grazing alone is enough. In the dry season, hay and silage should be fed with concentrate in addition to grazing. all these are involved in types of cattle management

Two months before calving, the heifer should be brought to the milking herd to accustom it to handling. It should be fed heavily.

The heavy feeding before calving is known as “steaming up”.
All heifers must be vaccinated against contagious abortion when 4 – 8 months old and against rinderpest when eight months old in types of cattle management

(i) Management and feeding of cattle during milking:

It is not essential to over-expose milking animals to the sun more than is necessary. they should be encouraged to graze at night. Concentrates should be fed both in the pasture and in the yards. Shelters Should be constructed both in the grazing field and in the yards; shelters should be open to the prevailing winds.

Water sprays and air fans should be installed in the yards to keep the environment as cool as possible. Whenever possible, dairy animals Should be reared indoors and this must be the practice in northern

Nigeria to check tsetse-flies.

Out-door cows should be rotationally grazed when dealing with types of cattle management. It is best to move animals daily. The best method is close grazing or close, By this method, the animals are given exactly the area that they need for grazing.

as types of cattle management, This is achieved by fencing and if need be by tethering the animals.
Grazing alone is sufficient for the production of 4.5 litres of K Above this, they should be given concentrates according to the live weight of the animal and the quantity of milk produced.

Feed the concentrate twice a day while milking is going on. A miicenlrate mixture consists of:
3 parts guinea corn grains
2 parts groundnut cake
3 parts palm kernel meal
2 parts dusa
3 per cent mineral mixture

This should be fed at the rate of ¼ kg of mixture for every 4.5 litres of milk produced.

(ii) Milking: Milking should be done twice a day, in the morning and in the evening. It is essential when milking a cow in the first line to prevent her from being frightened or getting excited. Tools for milking should not be associated with pain the cow will never let down milk. Always milk quickly.

Before the milking operation, the cow has to be stimulated. The pull of the calf on the teat of the udder of the cow gives the stimulus. The action of the calf could be imitated when hand milking is used. Dry hands should be used. Two teats are pulled alternatively on each occasion into the bucket.

It is necessary to clean the with warm water before milking.
The cow may not let down milk if the calves are not near. Therefore the calves may be brought near such cows.

During milking under types of cattle management,, all the milk must be extracted from the udder, milking is not complete, and there is a tendency for the cow to drop off too soon. When a cow is to be dried off. it is essential to restrict milking gradually.

The first heat occurs about 50 days after calving and it recurs in an average of 21 days, if there is no service or if there is pregnancy. It is best to service the animals on about the 85th day after calving. This results in calving at 12 months intervals. types of cattle management

Older cows should be milked for 305 days and dried off preparatory for calving in two months. Heifers should get longer drying periods. They should be milked only for nine months and dried off for three months.

Dry cows should subsist on grazing alone until 8-12 weeks from calving when they should receive 1kg of concentrate a day

(c) Management of Bull: The general feeding and management of young bulls should be similar to those of heifer. When mature, they should be fed as dry cows. types of cattle management

(i) Stud Bulls: These are bulls used for service. Bulls are used service when they attain the age of two years. They reach their peak breeding power in three to six years.

A young bull of service one or two times a week. Older bulls can service five tinier a week. A bull may be allowed to service cows in a year. as types of cattle management

(ii) Work Bulls: Bulls for work should be trained to draw ploughs when they are two years old. Bull calves intended for work should be castrated at a very early stage.

During the wet season, grazing alone is sufficient to maintain the animals and produce three hours of work per day. For each additional hour of work ½kg of dusa should be fed in addition.
In dry season, feed up to 6kg of mixed fodders in addition to grazing and anextra ½kg of dusa or its equivalent for each hour of work.

For three weeks before ploughing begins, feed 1.5kg of ‘I in addition to grazing,

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