Types of land tenure system in agriculture and their effects. problem of land tenure system in agriculture. Nigeria land use act. read on for more details
AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS, LAND TENURE SYSTEM IN AGRICULTURE
Land tenure is defined as the system of land ownership or acquisition by individual, family, community or government agency either for temporary or permanent use.
The land tenure system in West Africa varies with tribes, communities and states. It can be classified into the following groups:
types of land tenure system in agriculture and their effects
i. Communal land tenure
ii. Land tenure by inheritance
iii. Leasehold system
iv. Land tenure by tenancy
v. Land tenure by purchase
vi. Land tenure by purchase or freehold
vii. Land tenure by free gift or pledge
viii. Tenant at the will of government
Note: Land tenure by
i. Freehold system
ii. Leasehold system
iii. Gift system
WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
16. CROP ROTATION
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. <ahref=”https: www.apsnet.org=”” edcenter=”” disandpath=”” fungalbasidio=”” pdlessons=”” pages=”” coffeerust.aspx”=””>COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM
77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
115. MAMMARY GLAND
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM
PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION
127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
133. PROTEIN FATS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
iv. Tenant at the will of government inheritance system are collectively referred to as individual land tenure systems.
it is also very important to state that land, despite the powers vested on the Nigerian government the power over land on behalf of the citizens, land is is still very much in the hands of the people to either sell, lease or give out as gift.
Communal Land Tenure system Features
In this type. the land belongs to the entire community. The community may be a family, clan or village. Every member of the community has the right to use the land for agriculture, but cannot sell any portion of it.
The head of the community who may be a chief, an Oba, Obi. Emir or a Baale decides how the land is to be divided among members for farming purpose usually at the beginning of each planting season.
The system relies on the availability of large area of land that can be shared to each member of the community.
Advantages of TYPES OF LAND TENURE SYSTEM IN AGRICULTURE
(i) Each member of the community has easy access to the land.
(ii) Cooperative farming is possible since the land is extensive
(iii) Large scale farming or plantation agriculture is possible due to its large size, if only community members cooperate.
(iv) The land is cheap to acquire, as no cost is involved.
Disadvantages or Problems of LAND TENURE SYSTEM IN AGRICULTURE
(i) Non-members of the community cannot have access to the land for farming.
(ii) There is usually lack of co-operation among community members, if the land is to be used for large scale farming.
(iii) Land cannot be pledged, sold or used as collateral by an individual.
(iv) Those with means but who are not members of the community, find it difficult to get land for farming activities.
That is, non-indigenous of the community cannot acquire land or have access to it
(v) There is tendency to neglect parcels of useful land as no one readily considers it his/her interest to protect it from degradation.read land degradation and its effects here
(vi) It is characterized by litigation and misunderstanding.
(vii) Mechanized farming cannot be practiced without permission of the whole community.
(viii) There is excessive land fragmentation overtime.
(ix) Allotted land can be revoked by new leadership.
(x) It does not encourage planting of permanent crops.
Types of Land Tenure system by Inheritance
This is the type of land tenure in which land is inherited from one’s parent or from one generation to another. in Nigeria, land for agricultural activities are mainly acquired through inheritance.
The land so inherited from a single parent is shared among all his children and this eventually leads to fragmentation of the land.
Leasehold System Features
This type of land tenure requires the payment of certain amount of money for the use of the land over a stated period of time.
In other words, leasehold tenure system is a special contract existing between a person called the leasor and another called the leasee for the lease of a piece of land for a specified period of years, which may be ten years, twenty years fifty years.
The lessee will exercise his right on the use and maintenance of the land for the period of lease.
i. It ensures the use of available land.
ii. It enables the farmer to maximize the use of the land in terms of maintenance of the soil fertility in order to improve the productivity of crops
Disadvantages or Problems of leasehold land tenure system in agriculture
Land Tenure by Rent Features
In this system, the farmer rents the land for use over a short period of time during which certain amount of money is paid as rent by its use. At the end of the period, the agreement ma he reviewed, if the landlord so desires.
(i) It makes use of available land r agricultural purposes.
(ii) The land is efficiently used and maintained for maximum production within the short period.
Disadvantages or Problems
(i) The land cannot be used for securing loan.
(ii) It affects long term planning.
(iii) There is limitation in the development of such land.
Land Tenure by Purchase or Free hold Features
In this type of land tenure, a farmer buys a piece of land for agricultural purpose. He pays certain amount of money to the landlord and the land becomes his personal property.
i. The farmer can use the land to secure loan from bank
ii. Perennial crops can be grown
iii. Proper planning in the development of such land can be done
Disadvantages or Problems
i. The land may be too expensive to purchase
ii. The actual owner may be difficult to establish
iii. The farmer may not have sufficient money to buy the exact size of the land he needs
land Tenure by Free Gift or Pledge Features
This is the type of land tenure system in which land is donated or given out of goodwill or free of charge in appreciation or as an incentive. The new owner does not need to pay any money.
i. It ensures the maximum use of the land for increased production.
ii. Plantation agriculture can be practiced.
iii. It can be used as security to obtain loan
Disadvantages or Problems
i. The ownership of the land can be challenged at any time
ii. There may be disagreement over such gift family members
Tenants at the Will of Government Features
This is a system of land tenure in which a piece of land is given or allocated to a farmer by the government. read land use act here
The land belongs to the government and the farmer has to pay certain amount of money to the government for using such land, usually for a stipulated period of time as stated in the land use act of Nigeria.
i. Farmers can easily have access to land
ii. The land is wisely used for productive purposes
ii. Farmers cannot use the land as collateral to secure loans from banks
iii. There are usually lots of bottlenecks or bureaucracy in the allocation, regulation and control over such land
iv. Such land can easily be revoked, if the tenant fails to pay the rent at the right time
WAYS IN WHICH LAND TENURE SYSTEM IN AGRICULTURE AFFECTS AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
(i) May lead to fragmentation of land which cannot be mechanized.
(ii) Correct ownership of some plots of land cannot be determined.
(iii) Land cannot be used as collateral for loans in some tenure systems.
(iv) Large scale farming cannot be practiced on small scattered farm holdings
Types of land tenure system in agriculture and their effects. problem of land tenure system in agriculture. Nigeria land use act.
(v) Strangers are prevented from owning land; hence they cannot come to develop the land.
(vi) Because of the short tenancy period in some systems, permanent land improvement programmes cannot be carried out by holders.
(viii) Some land owners may not have the intention of farming while those willing to farm cannot own land because of the tenure system.
(ix) Some land owners exploit those without land by unfavourable tenancy conditions.
(x) Production is very high on land acquired by purchasing or freehold because land improvement can be carried out.
(xi) Land Use Act/Decree (of 1978 in Nigeria) made more land available to farmers for large Scale production
(xii) Acquisition of land through freehold is expensive, thereby discouraging agricultural investors.
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