BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC FACTORS AFFECTING ECOSYSTEM

biotic and abiotic factors affecting ecosystem, these can also be termed as ECOLOGICAL FACTORS. what this means is the living and nonliving things found in an environment that affects the proper functioning of the ecosystem. so in this article, we shall be looking at the biotic and abiotic factors affecting the ecosystem. no need to rush, take your time and go through it slow and if you have any question please do leave your comment

ECOLOGICAL FACTORS are those factors in the environment which can influence living organisms or cause changes in any habitat, be it aquatic or terrestrial
Ecological factors are grouped into two categories.
They are biotic and abiotic factors

What are the biotic factors that affect ecosystem?

although this post contains details about how biotic and abiotic factors affect the ecosystem but first lets treat the abiotic factors. Listed below are the Biotic factors affecting ecosystem. COMPETITION: competition involves in the interaction between two organisms of the same species or different species in which one outgrows the other and the other die or cannot survive thereby affecting the balanced food competition in the ecosystem

HOW PARASITISM TYPE OF BIOTIC FACTOR AFFECT THE ECOSYSTEM

this is a close association between two organisms in which one, called parasite lives on the other called host for survival. The parasite usually benefits from the association while the host suffers and most often dies out

COMMENSALISM: commensalism is a type of biotic factor which is an association between two organisms living together in which only one, the commensal, benefits from the association while the other is neither harmed nor benefits

PREDATION BIOTIC FACTORS IN THE ECOSYSTEM:

predation is a type of biotic association between two organisms in which the predator kills the other called the prey and feeds directly on it

PATHOGENS: these are micro-organisms which can be either plants or animals (biotic factors) in an environment which can cause diseases to plant and animals that eventually leads to their death….- biotic and abiotic factors
6.
MORTALITY: mortality is the death rate of organisms either plants or animals in an environment. Mortality generally reduces the population of organisms in any habitat

7.MIGRATION: migration of organism is a type of biotic factor. this is the movement of organisms from habitat to another. Immigration then is the movement of organisms from a habitat into a new one while emigration is those moving out. These movement generally have effects on the other organisms inhibiting the same habitat

1.

DISPERSAL: dispersal is the spreading of new organisms or individual from their parents to new habitat so as to start a new life. Such movement also affects the ecosystem or life in their new area
9.

NATALITY:

Natality is the rate of giving birth to new offspring. Natality is generally known the population of the habitat which will eventually lead to some problems within the habitat competing for food or survival
10.

FOOD:

availability of food in an habitat generally lead to increase in population in an habitat
11.

DISEASES:

diseases are known ton decrease the population of organisms in any habitat
12.

PEST:

pest are known to affect the performance of plants in terms of yield and growth and severe cases the plant may die

ABIOTIC FACTOR AFFECTING AN ECOSYSTEM

The abiotic factors affecting an ecosystem includes the following
1.

CLIMATIC FACTORS:

these are temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind, pressure and sunshine
2.

CHEMICAL FACTORS:

these are made up of oxygen, carbon dioxide, mineral salts, water and nitrogen
3.

EDAPHIC ABIOTIC FACTORS:

These consist of soil, its water, chemical and physical composition, its pH, nutrients, profile, structure and texture.
fabioclass images

TOPOGRAPHY:

these are caused as a result of the shape of the earth’s surface, like the effect of rivers, hills, mountains and valleys

ECOLOGICAL FACTORS COMMON TO ALL HABITATS

There are common factors that affect nearly all the habitat, these are as followsIt is worthy of note, that of all these factors, temperature and rainfall determine the major Biomes of the world.

TEMPERATURE AS ABIOTIC FACTOR

so how does abiotic factors affect the ecosystem? here are some the factors. Temperature determine the vegetation of an area
Temperature is necessary for the germination of seeds
Temperature affects the distribution plants and animals. It regulates the activities of major living things
5. Temperature affects evaporation and transpiration, and reduces the performance of plants and animals
6. It affects the wilting field crops
7. Temperature may lead to loss of soil nutrient through volatilization
8. Unfavourable temperature may result in seed dormancy

RAINFALL

1. Rainfall is an abiotic factor that determines season in some places like Nigeria where we have rainy and dry seasons
2. Rainfall determine the vegetation of a place
3. Rainfall determine the distribution of plants and animals
4. Rainfall provides the dwelling place for some organisms like fish
5. Rainfall is necessary for seed germination
6. Rainfall helps to dissolve nutrient in the soil
7. Rainfall is the main source of water to rivers, lakes and seas
8. Plants use water for photosynthesis

WIND

Wind is a typical abiotic factor that also determine seasons in Nigeria
2. Wind helps in the distribution of rainfall
3. Wind aids in the spread of diseases
4. It aids the pollination of plant flowers
5. Wind aids the dispersal of seeds and fruits
6. High velocity wind causes wind erosion
7. Wind is responsible for water current and waves
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS

LIGHT

1. Sunlight is necessary for photosynthesis to take place in green plants
2. It affects avapo-transpiration
3. Light affect the productivity of crops
4. Light affects flowering and fruiting plants
5. Light is the ultimate source of energy for all organisms
6. Light affect the activities of animals

PRESSURE

atmospheric pressure decreases as one goes up from the sea level is a general abiotic factor
2. In aquatic environment, pressure increases as one moves down the water
3. Plants and animals have a special level of adaptation to pressure to enable them live or survive
4. Too high or too low pressure will always affects the life and performance of plants and animals
5. Pressure is responsible for movement of winds

HYDROGEN ion CONCENTRATION (pH) AS A ABIOTIC FACTOR

pH values ranges from 1 to 14, with pH 1 been very acidic, pH 7 neutral while pH 14 is alkaline
living organisms are highly sensitive to pH change4s in the environment
too high or too low pH will affect the life of both plants and animals
plants and animals are adapted to special pH values
most plants strive well in neutral or slightly alkaline while acidic soil supports very little vegetation

ECOLOGICAL FACTORS COMMON TO AQUATIC HABITATS

The following are the factors affecting aquatic habitat
1.

temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind ,pressure, pH and light

have all been explained earlier
SALINITY: salinity is defined as the degree of saltiness or concentration of salt solution in water. Salinity is low in fresh water, high in sea water and moderate ion brackish water
Aquatic organisms need to maintain the osmotic

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