PLANTS AND IMPORTANCE OF PLANTS TO FARMING

plants and importance of plants.  Plants are one of the two groups into which all living things have been traditionally divided the other is animals. Plants •

Plants are also called as green plants which are living organisms of the kingdom Plantae including such multi-cellular groups as flowering plants, conifers, ferns and mosses, as well as, depending on definition, the green algae

.

how does plants make there own food using photosynthesis

Green plants have cell walls with cellulose and characteristically obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis using chlorophyll contained in chloroplasts, which gives them their green color. •

Some plants are parasitic and may not produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or photosynthesize. Cultivation of the Soil • The principle of cultivation is to turn and break down the soil to a fine tilts to provide the ideal environment for seeds to germinate called tillage

Soil cultivation (or digging) is mainly carried out to bury weeds and debris. This is usually followed by surface preparation for sowing and planting. • What does cultivation do?

pollination in plant

WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE

pollination conditions in crop
self pollination

68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON</ahref=”https:>

89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION

147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES

154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

The idea is to increase the surface area or increase the macro pore space to facilitate infiltration and percolation, and to increase air diffusion into the soil. Tillage • Tillage is mechanical manipulation of soil-in agriculture, it is usually restricted to modifying soil conditions for crop production.here is an article on tillage implements here • It is believed to improve water infiltration and retention of rain water. •

Tillage alters soil porosity (assuming a crust is present), thus allowing a good exchange between soil air with atmospheric air. • Tillage should provide proper conditions for seed germination, particularly a good to-air balance. Tilled soil offers little resistance to seedling emergence or root penetration. • Tillage provides some weed control and incorporation of plant residue. Tillage System • Intensive tillage • Reduced tillage • Conservation tillage

read types of tillage here
TYPES OF TILLAGE IN DETAILS

Positive Effects of Tillage on plants •

Plowing loosens and aerates the top layer of soil which can facilitate the planting of the crop

Erosion of soil. •
It is a mechanical way used for destroying weeds. • Dries the soil before seeding. Negative Effects of tillage • Dries the soil before seeding • Erosion of soil • Compaction of the soil, also known as a tillage pan. • Decreases the infiltration rate of soil. Agricultural Chemistry •

Use of Manures to improve plants yield

Animal dung has been used for centuries as a fertilizer for farming, as it improves the soil structure (aggregation), so that it holds more nutrients and water, and becomes more fertile. • Animal manure also encourages soil microbial activity, which promotes the soil’s trace mineral supply, improving plant nutrition. • It also contains some nitrogen and other nutrients that assist the growth of plants. The process of germination • Germination is the process by which plants, fungus and bacteria emerge from seeds and spores, and begin growth. •

plants germination process

The most common example of germination is the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm. • Germination is the growth of an embryonic plant contained within a seed; it results in the formation of the seedling. • In agriculture and gardening, the germination rate describes how many seeds of a particular plant species, variety or seed lot are likely to germinate. How leguminous plants obtain their Nitrogen

A legume is a plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae), or a fruit of these specific plants. • Many legumes (alfalfa, clover, peas, beans, lentils, soybeans, peanuts and others) contain symbiotic bacteria called Rhizobia within root nodules of their root systems. •

These bacteria have the special ability of fixing nitrogen from atmospheric, molecular nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3). • The chemical reaction is: N2 + 8 H+ + 8 e− 2 NH3 + H2 • Ammonia is then converted to another form, ammonium (NH4+), usable by (some) plants by the following reaction: NH3 + H+ NH4+ • This arrangement means that the root nodules are sources of nitrogen for legumes, making them relatively rich in plant proteins.

agricultural pests of plants

Pests • Agricultural pests are insects that harm the crop or do damage to agricultura products. • Often animals are derided as pests as they cause damage to agriculture by feeding on crops or parasitizing livestock, such as codling moth on apples, or boll weevil on cotton.

Pest •

Four major Pest categories: 1. Weeds, undesirable plant. 2. Invertebrates, such as Insects, Spiders and mites, Sow bugs, pill bugs, Snails, slugs, and mussels. 3. Vertebrates, such as: Birds, Snakes Fish, Rodents and other mammals.

types of Plants Diseases,

Pathogens – living agents such as Fungi, Bacteria, Viruses, Nematodes, Phytoplasm and Non-living agents such as cold, heat, pollutants

read agricultural pollution here , dog urine etc. •

insects that causes damages to plants

Some insects feed directly on the plants, for example caterpillars eat leaves or damage fruits, and aphids suck juices from the plant with their beak-like mouthparts. • Other insects do damage because they can transmit plant diseases, for example whiteflies and aphids can transmit virus diseases from one plant to another. re

read disease transmission modes here
• Also the harvested crop can still be attacked by insects. All kind of storage insects such as the rice weevil and the rice moth can cause big damage to stored rice and other grains.

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) • A pest management philosophy that utilizes all suitable pest management techniques and methods to keep pest populations below economically injurious levels. • Why Practice IPM? 1. Maintains balanced ecosystems 2. Pesticides alone may be ineffective 3. Promotes a healthy environment 4. Saves money • Management

Strategies

  1. Prevent or exclude 2. Eradicate 3. Reduce 4. No action. Components of IPM Monitoring: • Monitoring and tracking of existing populations allows for early detection of infestation and allows for better determining the quantity and timing of any insecticides that may be used. Trapping: •

Two strategies are to trap for monitoring purposes or to reduce the number of insects present. Capturing a large portion prevents injurious numbers from infesting the area. Mating Disruption: • Reduces the number of damaging larvae and adults that will be present in future generations.

IPM Methods

Pest free planting: • Assure plants are not infected prior to planting. This minimizes the change for introducing new pests to the area. Crop rotation: • Plant a different crop every other year to minimize adaptation of the pests. Physical barriers: • Cover plants with material to block the pests from the plants.

Natural predators:

• Introduce natural predators that will feed on the insects Trapping: • Attract and trap the pest to physically reduce their population in the affected area. Genetically modified plants: • They have resistance to the pest thus reducing damage that would be inflicted. Biological agents: • Introduce natural agents to the area that are harmful to the pests. Physical removal: • Remove and dispose of the pests. Ecological management: • Alter the environment to favor the population of natural predators and minimize that of the pest. Insecticides: •

Apply chemical agents. • This is normally considered one of the least preferred methods due to costs and environmental concerns.

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