types and groups of farm animals. GROUPS OF FARM ANIMALS, Meaning of farm animals
Farm animals are the animals that are domesticated by man. The animals are kept because they are useful in many ways. Some produce milk, meat and eggs used as food. Others provide pleasure while some are used as beast of burden or work animals. Examples of farm animals are cattle, pigs, goats, sheep, rabbit and poultry.
CLASSIFICATION OF FARM ANIMALS
(A) Bases for classifying farm animals The domesticated animals are or can be classified in the following ways
- Classification according to body morphology.
- Classification according to living environment.
- Classification according to the type of stomach
CLASSIFICATION OF FARM ANIMALS ACCORDING TO MORPHOLOGY:
on the bases of body morphology, farm animals are grouped into three.
a) Mammals: these are farm animals that have back bone. They give birth to young ones alive and the young ones are fed with milk from the mammary gland.
The animals in this group are cold blooded
(b) Birds: these are the Farm animals that have wings and feathers. They have the ability to fly. They are also warm blooded animals like mammals. These set of animals lay eggs. Examples are fowl, turkey, duck and geese.
(c) Fish: these live are reared in water. It is a cold blooded vertebrate. The temperature of the body of fish changes in relation with its surrounding. The body of most fishes is covered with scales. They have fins for movement in water. Examples are sharks, catfish, mackerel, tilapia, salmon, sardines, etc.
CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO LIVING ENVIRONMENT OR HABITAT:
On the bases of the living environment or habitat, farm animals could be grouped into two, they are 1. Aquatic 2. Terrestrial animals 1. Aquatic animals: are those farm animals that live in water. They get food and oxygen necessary for survival from the water. They are able to live in water because they are cold blooded animals. Examples are all fish related creatures.
- Terrestrial animals: these are the farm animals that live on land. The majority of the farm animals are in this category. They are firmly adapted to live on land. They possess legs to move about in search for food. They are Goats Sheep, cattle and donkeys.
CLASSIFICATION OF FARM ANIMALS ACCORDING TO TYPE OF STOMACH
FARM ANIMALS CAN BE GROUPED INTO TWO ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF STOMACH.
these set of farm animals have complex or four compartment stomach. These are compartments are as follows, rumen, reticulum, Omasum Abomasums which is called the true stomach. These set of farm animals eat mainly grass and chew the cud. Examples are, Goat, cattle and sheep.
These have simple stomach like that of man. The food eaten by Non-ruminant animals are chewed in the mouth completely with the help of the teeth before it is swallowed into the stomach. Non-ruminants feed mainly on grain, tubers and tubers. Examples are Rabbit, Pig, poultry and horse.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RUMINANT AND NON-RUMINANT FARM ANIMALS
RUMINANTS. one compartment Very large stomach it is very small Large quantity of food consumed eats very little Can digest grasses with cellulose cannot digest grasses easily but foods like grains
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TYPES OF FARM OF ANIMALS
poultry is the name used to describe all domesticated birds. They produce meat and eggs used as food. The common types of poultry are chicken/fowl, duck, guinea fowl, turkey and geese. In most countries of the world, chicken seemed the most common type of poultry.
Here is a list of the major breeds of chicken,
- Native dwarf fowl
- Rhode Island Red
- Plymouth Rock
- White and Brown Leghorn
- Light Sussex
In Nigeria and most other black African countries, the Native Dwarf fowl is mainly kept by farmers in the rural areas. The other types or breeds of chicken are foreign and are reared by modern and big poultry farmers.
terms associated with poultry farm animals
The types of chicken that are kept for the production of meat only are called Broilers.
The types that are kept for the production of eggs are called Layers.
The dual purpose chicken is meant to produce both egg and meat.
Adult male chicken is called
Adult female chicken is called Hen
The young one of both sexes is called chick
A castrated male cock is called Capon
Those types reared for the production of hatch-able eggs are called parent stock.
CLASSIFICATION OF CATTLE ACCORDING TO THEIR USES
Cattle belong to the family of Bovine. The cattle is referred to as hoofed animal because it has two enlarged toes.
A Cattle with hump is known as Zebu cattle.
Therefore cattle can be grouped according the purpose for they are kept by the farmer. So in the study of Agricultural Science, they are as follows
Beef Cattle farm animals:
This is the cattle kept mainly for the production of meat known as beef.
Examples of good beef cattle in Nigeria are:
and the other foreign breed are:
a. ABERDEN ANGUS and
b. BRAHAMN the American Zebu cattle.
this is the cattle kept mainly for the production of milk.
Examples of good milk or dairy cattle in Nigeria are:
a. WHITE FULANI,
b. SOKOTO GUDALI AND
We also have breeds like
c. Friesian and
d. Jersey from America. Work Cattle:
this type of cattle is used as source of labour for doing farm work such as tilling the soil and carrying farm load. They have lots of strength. read types of tillage system here
a. Kanrej from India and
b. Sokoto Gudali in Nigeria Dual purpose Cattle:
these farm animals are kept mainly for the production of meats and milk.
Dual purpose cattle in Nigeria include:
b. Biu and
c. Sokoto Gudali.
The adult male of cattle is called bull.
The adult female cattle is called cow.
The young cattle are called calf.
The castrated male cattle is called bullock.
BREEDS OF CATTLE IN NIGERIA AND WEST AFRICA
The breeds of cattle as farm animals that are native to West Africa include:
vii. RED-BORORO AND
viii. SOKOTO GUDALI.
BREEDS OF CATTLE BROUGHT TO NIGERIA FROM EUROPE AND OTHER CONTINENTS
a. HOSTIEN FRESIAN,
b. WHITE AND BLACK SWISS,
c. JAMAICA HOPE,
g. BRAHAM AND
h.THE RED DEVON.
Sheep belongs to the genus Ovidae.
The animal is popularly reared in countries with temperate climate such as Australia, Britain, South Africa and New Zealand. It is also a popular animal reared in countries like Nigeria, Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania and a few others.
The production of sheep is mainly for their hides/skin, milk and wool.
An adult male sheep is called Ram.,
Adult female is called Ewe.
Young of both sexes is called lamb.
Castrated male before sexual maturity is called Weather.
Castrated male after sexual maturity is called Stag.
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