types and groups of farm animals. GROUPS OF FARM ANIMALS, Meaning of farm animals
Others provide pleasure while some are used as beasts of burden or work animals. Examples of farm animals are cattle, pigs, goats, sheep, rabbits and poultry.
breeds of Goats and management of goat farm
CLASSIFICATION OF FARM ANIMALS
(A) Bases for classifying farm animals The domesticated animals are or can be classified in the following ways
- Classification according to body morphology.
- Classification according to the living environment.
- Classification according to the type of stomach
CLASSIFICATION OF FARM ANIMALS ACCORDING TO MORPHOLOGY:
on the bases of body morphology, farm animals are grouped into three.
a) Mammals: These are farm animals that have a backbone. They give birth to young ones alive and the young ones are fed with milk from the mammary gland.
The animals in this group are cold-blooded
. That is to say that the temperature of the body does not change in relation to its environment. Goats, sheep, rabbits, pigs, cattle and donkeys are some of the domesticated mammals.
(b) Birds: These are the Farm animals that have wings and feathers. They have the ability to fly. They are also warm-blooded animals like mammals. This set of animals lays eggs. Examples are fowl, turkey, duck and geese.
(c) Fish: These fishes are reared in water. It is a cold-blooded vertebrate. The temperature of the body of fish changes in relation to its surroundings. The body of most fishes is covered with scales. They have fins for movement in water. Examples are sharks, catfish, mackerel, tilapia, salmon, sardines, etc.
CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO LIVING ENVIRONMENT OR HABITAT:
On the basis of the living environment or habitat, farm animals could be grouped into two, they are 1. Aquatic 2. Terrestrial animals 1. Aquatic animals: are those farm animals that live in water. They get the food and oxygen necessary for survival from the water. They are able to live in water because they are cold-blooded animals. Examples are all fish-related creatures.
- Terrestrial animals: These are the farm animals that live on land. The majority of the farm animals are in this category. They are firmly adapted to live on land. They possess legs to move about in search of food. They are Goats Sheep, cattle and donkeys.
CLASSIFICATION OF FARM ANIMALS ACCORDING TO TYPE OF STOMACH
FARM ANIMALS CAN BE GROUPED INTO TWO ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF STOMACH.
These set of farm animals have complex or four-compartment stomachs. These compartments are as follows, rumen, reticulum, Omasum Abomasums which is called the true stomach. These set of farm animals eat mainly grass and chew the cud. Examples are Goat, cattle and sheep.
These have simple stomachs like that of man. The food eaten by Non-ruminant animals is chewed in the mouth completely with the help of the teeth before it is swallowed into the stomach. Non-ruminants feed mainly on grain, tubers and tubers. Examples are Rabbits, Pig, poultry and horses.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RUMINANT AND NON-RUMINANT FARM ANIMALS
RUMINANTS. one compartment Very large stomach it is very small Large quantity of food consumed eats very little Can digest grasses with cellulose cannot digest grasses easily but foods like grains
- economic tools for nation building
- factors affecting the expansion of industries
- mineral resources and the mining industries
TYPES OF FARM ANIMALS
Here is a list of the major breeds of chicken,
- Native dwarf fowl
- Rhode Island Red
- Plymouth Rock
- White and Brown Leghorn
- Light Sussex
In Nigeria and most other black African countries, the Native Dwarf fowl is mainly kept by farmers in the rural areas. The other types or breeds of chicken are foreign and are reared by modern and big poultry farmers.
terms associated with poultry farm animals
The types of chicken that are kept for the production of meat only are called boilers.
The types that are kept for the production of eggs are called Layers.
The dual-purpose chicken is meant to produce both egg and meat.
Adult male chicken is called
An adult female chicken is called a Hen
The young one of both sexes is called a chick
A castrated male cock is called Capon
Those types reared for the production of hatchable eggs are called parent stock.
CLASSIFICATION OF CATTLE ACCORDING TO THEIR USES
Cattle belong to the family of Bovine. The cattle is referred to as a hoofed animal because it has two enlarged toes.
A Cattle with hump is known as Zebu cattle.
Those without hump are called humpless cattle.
A Cattle is reared by the farmer for meat, hides and milk.
Therefore cattle can be grouped according to the purpose for they are kept by the farmer. So in the study of Agricultural Science, they are as follows
Beef Cattle farm animals:
This is the cattle kept mainly for the production of meat known as beef.
Examples of good beef cattle in Nigeria are:
and the other foreign breeds are:
a. ABERDEN ANGUS and
b. BRAHAMN the American Zebu cattle.
this is the cattle kept mainly for the production of milk.
Examples of good milk or dairy cattle in Nigeria are:
a. WHITE FULANI,
b. SOKOTO GUDALI AND
We also have breeds like
c. Friesian and
d. Jersey from America. Work Cattle:
this type of cattle is used as a source of labour for doing farm work such as tilling the soil and carrying farm load. They have lots of strength. read types of tillage systems here
a. Kanrej from India and
b. Sokoto Gudali in Nigeria Dual purpose Cattle:
these farm animals are kept mainly for the production of meats and milk.
Dual-purpose cattle in Nigeria include:
b. Biu and
c. Sokoto Gudali.
The adult male of cattle is called a bull.
The adult female cattle is called a cow.
The young cattle are called calf.
The castrated male cattle is called bullock.
BREEDS OF CATTLE IN NIGERIA AND WEST AFRICA
The breeds of cattle as farm animals that are native to West Africa include:
vii. RED-BORORO AND
viii. SOKOTO GUDALI.
BREEDS OF CATTLE BROUGHT TO NIGERIA FROM EUROPE AND OTHER CONTINENTS
a. HOSTIEN FRESIAN,
b. WHITE AND BLACK SWISS,
c. JAMAICA HOPE,
g. BRAHAM AND
h.THE RED DEVON.
Sheep belongs to the genus Ovidae.
The animal is popularly reared in countries with temperate climates such as Australia, Britain, South Africa and New Zealand. It is also a popular animal reared in countries like Nigeria, Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania and a few others.
The production of sheep is mainly for their hides/skin, milk and wool.
An adult male sheep is called Ram.,
An adult female is called an Ewe.
Young of both sexes is called lamb.
Castrated male before sexual maturity is called Weather.
A castrated male after sexual maturity is called a Stag.
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