CULTIVATION OF RICE AND CULTURAL PRACTICES

cultivation of rice and cultural practices,  oryza sativa. types of rice. planting dates,  soil requirements for cultivation of rice

RICE production and its major diseases(Oryza sativa)

Rice is another popular cereal crop grown and consumed by nearly half of the world’s population. It is also a member of the grass family (Gramineae). The seed/fruit of rice is a caryopsis, i.e., it has, its epicarp fused with the mesocarp.

Types of rice

African rice – – – – – Oryza glaberrima

Asian rice – – – – Oryza sativa

Botanical name for rice—- Oryza Spp

Land Preparation of rice cultivation :

This is done either manually, using cutlass to clear the bush and remove stump and hoe to make ridges, or mechanically by ploughing, harrowing and ridging.

cultivation of rice and cultural practices
cultivation of rice

Varieties of rice or Cultivars:

These include the swamp nee (Toma, BG79 and GFB24) and the upland rice (Agbede). Climatic and Soil Requirement: Rice requires a temperature of over 20C, 75cm- 120cm of rainfall for upland rice and over 250cm for swamp rice, and light fertile soil.

Methods of rice Propagation:

Rice is propagated by seed. Rice can be propagated manually or mechanically.
Seed Rate: 65kg/ha at two to three seeds per hole.

Rice Planting Date during cultivation years

Rice is planted in Southern Nigeria around April and May, and between August and September in the North.
Planting: Rice can be planted by broadcasting, sowing or drilling of the seeds at 2-4cm deep.

rice nursery farm
rice cultivation practices

Nursery Practices in Rice production and cultivation :

Swamp rice requires nursery which is done in fertile, water- soaked soil. Seeds are broadcast and germination begins after four to five days and the seedlings are transplanted at between seven to eight weeks of growth to the field. Seeds are sown in nursery around May-June and transplanted in July – August to the field.

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  10. joint stock company
  11. public enterprises
  12. private enterprises
  13. limited liability companies
  14. migration
  15. population
  16. market concept
  17. money market
  18. shares
  19. how companies raises funds for expansion

WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

  1. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
    19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
    20. INCUBATORS
    21. MILKING MACHINE
    22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
    23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
    24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
    25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
    26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
    27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
    28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
    29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
    30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
    31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
    32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
    33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
    34. OIL PALM
    35. USES OF PALM OIL
    36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
    37. COCOA
    38.
    39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
    HOLING AND LINING
    40. YAM
    41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
    42. DEPT OF PLANTING
    43. SPACING OF YAM
    44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
    45. STORAGE OF YAM
    46. STAKING OF YAM
    47. HARVESTING OF YAM
    48. COWPEA
    JUTE
    49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
    50. FORAGE GRASSES
    51. SILAGE
    52. PASTURE
    53. TYPES OF PASTURE
    COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
    54. GRASSES
    55. LEGUMES
    56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
    57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
    58. HAY SILAGE
    59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
    60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
    61. MAIZE SMUT
    62. RICE BLAST
    63. MAIZE RUST
    64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
    65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
    66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE

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  13. advertising industry
  14. factors of production
  15. entrepreneur
  16. joint stock company
  17. public enterprises
  18. private enterprises
  19. limited liability companies
  20. migration
  21. population
  22. market concept
  23. money market
  24. shares
  25. how companies raises funds for expansion
  1. BALANCED DIETS
    141. LACTATION DIETS
    142. MALNUTRITION
  2. RINDER PESTS
    148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
    149. BACTERIA DISEASES
    150. ANTHRAX
    151. BRUCELLOSIS
    152. TUBERCULOSIS
    153. FUNGAL DISEASES
  3. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
    155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS

    159. TAPE WORM
    160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
    161. LIVER FLUKE
    162. ECTO PARASITES
    163. TICK

Spacing: 25cm – 30cm apart, depending on variety.

Cultural Practices In Rice production and cultivation practices

(a) Supplying and thinning: These can be done where applicable.

(b) Fertilizer application: Apply 150kg or three bags of N.P.K fertilizer per hectare at planting by broadcasting.
(c) Weeding: Weeding is done to ensure rapid growth of rice pests and diseases: these should be prevented or controlled by spraying with appropriate chemicals.
(d) Maturity period: Rice matures in four to seven months depending on variety.
(e) Harvesting: Red heads of rice are cut off with knife, sickle or combined harvester.

how to Process rice

(a) Sun drying: This is done immediately after harvesting for three to four days.
(b) Threshing: This is the separation of the grains from the stalk by either beating with stick, treading with feet or by the use of mechanical threshers.

(c) Winnowing: After threshing, the chaff or unwanted dust and remains of stalks are removed by winnowing. This is a fanning operation usually done by throwing the grains in the air to blow away the dust and other residues.

rice processing
rice processing mill

After winnowing, the grains of rice remain enclosed by the husk to form what is called paddy.
(d) Parboiling: This process is used to reduce the breakage of grains during pounding. It also brings some vitamins to the outer layer of the grains and it also reduces the labour required to remove the husks.

The paddy rice is heated by putting it into boiling water for about 12-15 hours. The rice swells and the husks are forced apart. The parboiled rice is now sun-dried. The production of rice which is one of the world most consumed food

(e) Hulling: This is the removal of the husks from the grains. The grains are pounded gently to remove the expanded husks. The husks are then separated from the rice by winnowing.

(f) Polishing: In some cases, the paddy rice is threshed by machine, and polished. Polishing involves the use of specially designed machines to remove the husks and other layers covering the grains.

The portion removed is known as rice bran which is very rich in protein and vitamins.

Consumption of polished rice may cause vitamin deficiency disease called beri-beri due to the removal of the bran rich in protein.

How To Store Rice

Pests of Rice and control methods

  1. Birds: These pests feed on the grains, leading to low yield of rice
    Control
    (i) Employ children to scare the bird
    (ii) Use scare crows
    (iii) Practice early harvesting
  1. Rodents: Cane rat and grasscutter cut the plants and seedlings on the field leading to great loss.
  2. Control
    (i) Set or use traps
    (ii) Fence the farm round
  1. Rice Weevils: this is a store pest, Adults and larvae bore into the grains and reduce them to powder.
    Control

Fumigate store with phostox in tablets

Diseases of Rice and Control Methods

(1) Rice Smut: It is caused by a fungus (Tilleria horrid) which is spread by wind. The grains turn into a mass of black spores
Control

(i) Use resistant varieties
(ii) Use recommended fungicides to spray the crops
(2) Rice blight: It is caused by a fungus (Piricularia oryzae) spread through the soil. Longitudinal red or yellow spots develop on the leaves, leading to poor yield.

Control:
(i) Avoid the use of heavy nitrogen fertilizer:
(ii) Use resistant varieties
(iii) Use clean seeds
Brown leaf spot: It is caused by a fungus. It causes small narrow brown spots which appear on the leaves.
(3)
Control:
(i) Plant resistant varieties
(ii) Uproot and burn infected plants

  1. economic tools for nation building
  2. budgeting
  3. factors affecting the expansion of industries
  4. mineral resources and the mining industries
  5. demand and supply
  6. types of demand curve and used
  7. advertising industry
  8. factors of production
  9. entrepreneur
  10. joint stock company
  11. public enterprises
  12. private enterprises
  13. limited liability companies
  14. migration
  15. population
  16. market concept
  17. money market
  18. shares
  19. how companies raises funds for expansion

WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

  1. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
    19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
    20. INCUBATORS
    21. MILKING MACHINE
    22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
    23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
    24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
    25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
    26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
    27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
    28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
    29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
    30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
    31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
    32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
    33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
    34. OIL PALM
    35. USES OF PALM OIL
    36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
    37. COCOA
    38.
    39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
    HOLING AND LINING
    40. YAM
    41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
    42. DEPT OF PLANTING
    43. SPACING OF YAM
    44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
    45. STORAGE OF YAM
    46. STAKING OF YAM
    47. HARVESTING OF YAM
    48. COWPEA
    JUTE
    49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
    50. FORAGE GRASSES
    51. SILAGE
    52. PASTURE
    53. TYPES OF PASTURE
    COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
    54. GRASSES
    55. LEGUMES
    56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
    57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
    58. HAY SILAGE
    59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
    60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
    61. MAIZE SMUT
    62. RICE BLAST
    63. MAIZE RUST
    64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
    65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
    66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE

check out these recent posts

  1. loans for businesses
  2. how to establish enterprises
  3. what is a firm
  4. price equilibrium
  5. scale of preference
  6. concept of economics
  7. economic tools for nation building
  8. budgeting
  9. factors affecting the expansion of industries
  10. mineral resources and the mining industries
  11. demand and supply
  12. types of demand curve and used
  13. advertising industry
  14. factors of production
  15. entrepreneur
  16. joint stock company
  17. public enterprises
  18. private enterprises
  19. limited liability companies
  20. migration
  21. population
  22. market concept
  23. money market
  24. shares
  25. how companies raises funds for expansion
  1. BALANCED DIETS
    141. LACTATION DIETS
    142. MALNUTRITION
  2. RINDER PESTS
    148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
    149. BACTERIA DISEASES
    150. ANTHRAX
    151. BRUCELLOSIS
    152. TUBERCULOSIS
    153. FUNGAL DISEASES
  3. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
    155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS

    159. TAPE WORM
    160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
    161. LIVER FLUKE
    162. ECTO PARASITES
    163. TICK

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