CULTIVATION OF RICE AND CULTURAL PRACTICES

cultivation of rice and ,  oryza sativa. types of rice. planting dates,  soil requirements for cultivation of rice

RICE production and its major diseases(Oryza sativa)

Rice is another popular cereal crop grown and consumed by nearly half of the world’s population. It is also a member of the grass family (Gramineae). The seed/fruit of rice is a caryopsis, i.e., it has, its epicarp fused with the mesocarp.

Types of rice

African rice – – – – – Oryza glaberrima

Asian rice – – – – Oryza sativa

Botanical name for rice—- Oryza Spp

Land Preparation of rice cultivation :

This is done either manually, using cutlass to clear the bush and remove stump and hoe to make ridges, or mechanically by ploughing, harrowing and ridging.

cultivation of rice and cultural practices
cultivation of rice

Varieties of rice or Cultivars:

These include the swamp nee (Toma, BG79 and GFB24) and the upland rice (Agbede). Climatic and Soil Requirement: Rice requires a temperature of over 20C, 75cm- 120cm of rainfall for upland rice and over 250cm for swamp rice, and light fertile soil.

Methods of rice Propagation:

Rice is propagated by seed. Rice can be propagated manually or mechanically.
Seed Rate: 65kg/ha at two to three seeds per hole.

Rice Planting Date during cultivation years

Rice is planted in Southern Nigeria around April and May, and between August and September in the North.
Planting: Rice can be planted by broadcasting, sowing or drilling of the seeds at 2-4cm deep.

rice nursery farm
rice cultivation practices

Nursery Practices in Rice production and cultivation :

Swamp rice requires nursery which is done in fertile, water- soaked soil. Seeds are broadcast and germination begins after four to five days and the seedlings are transplanted at between seven to eight weeks of growth to the field. Seeds are sown in nursery around May-June and transplanted in July – August to the field.

RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON</ahref=”https:>

89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION

147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES

154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

Spacing: 25cm – 30cm apart, depending on variety.

C

ultural Practices In Rice production and cultivation practices

(a) Supplying and thinning: These can be done where applicable.

(b) Fertilizer application: Apply 150kg or three bags of N.P.K fertilizer per hectare at planting by broadcasting.
(c) Weeding: Weeding is done to ensure rapid growth of rice pests and diseases: these should be prevented or controlled by spraying with appropriate chemicals.
(d) Maturity period: Rice matures in four to seven months depending on variety.
(e) Harvesting: Red heads of rice are cut off with knife, sickle or combined harvester.

Processing of rice

(a) Sun drying: This is done immediately after harvesting for three to four days.
(b) Threshing: This is the separation of the grains from the stalk by either beating with stick, treading with feet or by the use of mechanical threshers.
(c) Winnowing: After threshing, the chaff or unwanted dust and remains of stalks are removed by winnowing. This is a fanning operation usually done by throwing the grains in the air to blow away the dust and other residues.

rice processing
rice processing mill

After winnowing, the grains of rice remain enclosed by the husk to form what is called paddy.
(d) Parboiling: This process is used to reduce the breakage of grains during pounding. It also brings some vitamins to the outer layer of the grains and it also reduces the labour required to remove the husks.

The paddy rice is heated by putting it into boiling for about 12-15 hours. The rice swells and the husks are forced apart. The parboiled rice is now sun-dried. The production of rice which is one of the world most consumed food

(e) Hulling: This is the removal of the husks from the grains. The grains are pounded gently to remove the expanded husks. The husks are then separated from the rice by winnowing.

(f) Polishing: In some cases, the paddy rice is threshed by machine, and polished. Polishing involves the use of specially designed machines to remove the husks and other layers covering the grains. The portion removed is known as rice bran which is very rich in protein and vitamins.

Consumption of polished rice may cause vitamin deficiency disease called beri-beri due to the removal of the bran rich in protein.

How To Store Rice

Pests of Rice and control methods

  1. Birds: These pests feed on the grains, leading to low yield of rice
    Control
    (i) Employ children to scare the bird
    (ii) Use scare crows
    (iii) Practice early harvesting
  2. Rodents: Cane rat and grasscutter cut the plants and seedlings on the field leading to great loss.
    Control
    (i) Set or use traps
    (ii) Fence the farm round
  3. Rice Weevils: this is a store pest, Adults and larvae bore into the grains and reduce them to powder.
    Control

Fumigate store with phostox in tablets

Diseases of Rice and Control Methods

(1) Rice Smut: It is caused by a fungus (Tilleria horrid) which is spread by . The grains turn into a mass of black spores
Control

(i) Use resistant varieties
(ii) Use recommended fungicides to spray the crops
(2) Rice blight: It is caused by a fungus (Piricularia oryzae) spread through the soil. Longitudinal red or yellow spots develop on the leaves, leading to poor yield.

Control:
(i) Avoid the use of heavy nitrogen fertilizer:
(ii) Use resistant varieties
(iii) Use clean seeds
Brown leaf spot: It is caused by a fungus. It causes small narrow brown spots which appear on the leaves.
(3)
Control:
(i) Plant resistant varieties
(ii) Uproot and burn infected plants

RUST

    1. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
    2. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
    3. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
    4. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
    5. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
    6. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
    7. PESTS OF CROPS
  1. ARMY WORM
  2. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
  3. APHIDS
  4. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
  5. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
  6. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
  7. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
  8. GREEN SPIDER MITE
  9. COTTON STAINER
  10. COTTON</ahref=”https:>
  1. LEAF ROLLER
  2. BEAN BEETLE
  3. RICE WEEVILS
  4. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
  5. CROP IMPROVEMENT
  6. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
  7. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
  8. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
  9. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
  10. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
  11. RUMINANT ANIMALS
  12. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
  13. THE NEURONS
  14. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
  15. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
  16. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
  17. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  18. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
  19. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  20. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
  21. THE HEART
  22. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
  23. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
  24. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
  25. MATING
  26. PARTURITION
  27. MAMMARY GLAND
  28. LACTATION
  29. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
  30. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
  31. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
  32. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
  33. POULTRY
  34. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
  35. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
  36. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
  37. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM
    PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
  38. POULTRY SANITATION
  39. ANIMAL NUTRITION
  40. RATION
  41. CONCENTRATE
  42. ROUGHAGE
  43. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
  44. CARBOHYDRATES
  45. PROTEIN FATS
  46. MINERALS
  47. VITAMINS
  48. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
  49. TYPES OF DIETS
  50. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
  51. LAYER DIETS
  52. BALANCED DIETS
  53. LACTATION DIETS
  54. MALNUTRITION
  55. RINDER PESTS
  56. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
  57. BACTERIA DISEASES
  58. ANTHRAX
  59. BRUCELLOSIS
  60. TUBERCULOSIS
  61. FUNGAL DISEASES
  62. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
  63. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
  64. COCCIDIOSIS
  65. RED FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
  66. ENDO PARASITES
  67. TAPE WORM
  68. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
  69. LIVER FLUKE
  70. ECTO PARASITES
  71. TICK
  72. LICE

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