cultivation of rice and cultural practices, Oryza sativa. types of rice. planting dates,  soil requirements for cultivation of rice

RICE cultivation and production and its major diseases(Oryza sativa) There are so many ways to prepare rice for cultivation.

some people prefer to spraying method of rice cultivation or the use nursery bed before transplanting is carried out.

Rice is another popular cereal crop grown and consumed by nearly half of the world’s population. It is also a member of the grass family (Gramineae).

The seed/fruit of rice is a caryopsis, i.e., it has, its epicarp fused with the mesocarp.
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Types of rice cultivation

African rice – – – – – Oryza glaberrima

Asian rice – – – – Oryza sativa

The botanical name for rice—- Oryza Spp

how to prepare land for rice cultivation :

This is done either manually, using cutlass to clear the bush and remove stump and hoe to make ridges, or mechanically by ploughing, harrowing and ridging.

Varieties of rice or Cultivars used for cultivation:

These include the swamp nee (Toma, BG79 and GFB24) and the upland rice (Agbede). Climatic and Soil Requirement: Rice requires a temperature of over 20C, 75cm- 120cm of rainfall for upland rice and over 250cm for swamp rice, and light fertile soil.

Methods of rice Propagation:

Rice is propagated by seed. Rice can be propagated manually or mechanically.
Seed Rate: 65kg/ha at two to three seeds per hole.

Rice Planting Date during cultivation years

The question here is which time of the year should we plant rice? Rice is planted in Southern Nigeria around April and May, and between August and September in the North.

Planting: Rice can be planted by broadcasting, sowing or drilling of the seeds at 2-4cm deep.

Nursery Practices in Rice production and cultivation :

Swamp rice requires a nursery which is done in fertile, water- soaked soil.

Seeds are broadcast and germination begins after four to five days and the seedlings are transplanted at between seven to eight weeks of growth to the field.

Seeds are sown in the nursery around May-June and transplanted in July – August to the field.

Spacing: 25cm – 30cm apart, depending on the variety.

Cultural Practices In Rice Production and cultivation practices

(a) Supplying and thinning: These can be done where applicable. here supplying and thinning in rice cultivation is this,

supplying means replacing dead ungerminated seeds in the rice farm while thinning means the removal of excess germinated stand and clusters

(b) Fertilizer application during the rice cultivation process. For proper growth and better yield Apply 150kg or three bags of N.P.K fertilizer per hectare during planting by broadcasting.

(c) Weeding of rice farms: Weeding is done to ensure the rapid growth of rice pests and diseases: these should be prevented or controlled by spraying with appropriate chemicals.

(d) Maturity period of rice: Rice matures in four to seven months depending on the variety.
(e) Harvesting: Red heads of rice are cut off with knife, sickle or combined harvester.

how to Process rice after cultivation

(a) Sun drying: This is done immediately after harvesting for three to four days.

(b) Threshing: This is the separation of the grains from the stalk by either beating with a stick, treading with feet or by the use of mechanical threshers.

(c) Winnowing: After threshing, the chaff or unwanted dust and the remains of stalks are removed by winnowing.

This is a fanning operation usually done by throwing the grains in the air to blow away the dust and other residues.


After winnowing, the grains of rice remain enclosed by the husk to form what is called paddy.

(d) Parboiling of rice: This process is used to reduce the breakage of grains during pounding. It also brings some vitamins to the outer layer of the grains and it also reduces the labour required to remove the husks.

The paddy rice is heated by putting it into boiling water for about 12-15 hours. The rice swells and the husks are forced apart.

The parboiled rice is now sun-dried. The production of rice which is one of the world most consumed food

(e) Hulling: This is the removal of the husks from the grains. The grains are pounded gently to remove the expanded husks. The husks are then separated from the rice by winnowing.

(f) Polishing: In some cases, the paddy rice is threshed by machine, and polished. Polishing involves the use of specially designed machines to remove the husks and other layers covering the grains.

The portion removed is known as rice bran which is very rich in protein and vitamins.

Consumption of polished rice may cause vitamin deficiency disease called beriberi due to the removal of the bran rich in protein.

How To Store Rice after Cultivation

Pests of Rice and control methods, to understand how to store rice after cultivation, you must understand the things that affect rice and destroy its production so as to know how to prevent them from attacking it after storage.

  • Birds: These pests feed on the grains, leading to a low yield of rice
    (i) Employ children to scare the bird
    (ii) Use scarecrows(iii) Practice early harvesting
  1. Rodents: Cane rats and grasscutters cut the plants and seedlings on the field leading to great loss.
  1. Control
    (i) Set or use traps
    (ii) Fence the farm round
  2. Rice Weevils: this is a store pest, Adults and larvae bore into the grains and reduce them to powder.

Fumigate store with phostox in tablets

Diseases of Rice and Control Methods During and after cultivation

(1) Rice Smut: It is caused by a fungus (Tilleria horrid) which is spread by wind. The grains turn into a mass of black spores

(i) Use resistant varieties
(ii) Use recommended fungicides to spray the crops
(2) Rice blight: It is caused by a fungus (Piricularia oryzae) spread through the soil. Longitudinal red or yellow spots develop on the leaves, leading to poor yield.

(i) Avoid the use of heavy nitrogen fertilizer:
(ii) Use resistant varieties
(iii) Use clean seeds
Brown leaf spot: It is caused by a fungus. It causes small narrow brown spots which appear on the leaves.

(i) Plant-resistant varieties
(ii) Uproot and burn infected plants

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