enzyme, types and their classes of enzymes

enzymes, TYPES OF ENZYMES, What is an enzyme?
An enzyme is an organic catalyst, usually proteinous in nature, which promotes or speeds up chemical changes in living cells but are not used up themselves in the process of the chemical changes or reaction.
Enzymes accelerate metabolic reactions without changing their composition in the process.

There are six key types of enzymes in organic chemistry. They are organized according to the way they work on a molecular level.

 

But first, what is an enzyme? An enzyme is a substance – usually a protein – created by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about life-sustaining biochemical reactions. Different types of enzymes have different classifications based on the kind of reactions they catalyze. Every organism – from the one-celled bacterium to the trillion-celled elephant – has many enzymes at work.

TYPES OF ENZYME

There are two major types of enzymes. These are
i. Intracellular enzymes: these types of enzymes usually functions inside the cells of living organisms. Common examples of these type of enzymes are the enzymes that catalyze cell respiration inside the mitochondria.
ii. Extracellular enzymes: these types of enzymes are enzymes which carry out their functions outside the cells. Examples of extracellular enzymes are the digestive enzymes

 

CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYME

The new method of classifying enzymes is based on the nature of the chemical changes it facilitates on a substrate. Such changes may involve oxidation in which case the enzyme will be called an oxidase.
It should be noted that the earlier classification based on the substrate on which the enzyme works on like the amylase for maltose, protease for protein or lipases for lipids are no longer correct or biochemically acceptable. So enzymes are classified as summarized below this article, so scroll down to read it.
So from this deduction, it is clear that all digestive enzymes belong to the class called hydrolases.
These class of enzymes called hydrolases generally refers to enzymes that break up various bonds, which is breaking large molecules into smaller particles in the presence of water.
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CHARACTERISTICS OF ENZYME

The following are the various ways to recognize an enzyme
They are
1. Enzymes remain chemically unchanged after a chemical reaction
2. Enzymes are specific in action. So one or more group of enzymes will act on specific substrates.
3. They are required in small quantities
4. Enzymes act best over a specific range of temperature, between 350-400C.
5. Enzymes are denature. Which is to say they are destroyed at high temperature and inactivated at very low temperature.
6. Enzymes act best at specific PH level. Either alkaline or acidic
7. The action of an enzyme is reversible
8. The action of an enzyme can be retarded by poison or inhibitors
9. Some enzyme are inactive and so require a co-enzyme to activate them
10. Enzymes can function outside the body of the organism that produced them
11. Enzymes are proteinous in nature

 

HERE ARE THE CLASSES OF ENZYME EXPLAINED

CLASS OF ENZYMES

1. HYDROLASES
Catalyze the hydrolytic cleavage or breaking up of carbon-oxygen, carbon-nitrogen or carbon bonds
2. OXIDO-REDUCTASES
Enzymes catalyzes the joining together of two molecules with accompanying hydrolysis of a higher energy bond.
3. TRANSFERASES:
This type of enzyme catalyzes a reaction of the general form: A+B+CIA+C+B
4. ISOMERASES:
This class of enzymes work on isomers and usually change the spatial configuration of molecule in a living cell
5. LIGASES:
This class of enzyme catalyzes the joining together of two molecules with the accompanying hydrolysis of a high energy bond
6. LYASES:
This class of enzyme catalyzes the breaking up of bonds by elimination or addition reaction

 

FUNCTIONS OF THE DIGESTIVE ENZYMES

Enzymes performs the following function within the body. They are
1. Enzymes helps in breaking down proteins in food into amino acid
2. The help to break down fats and oil into fatty acids and glycerol
3. Enzymes helps to break down carbohydrates into glucose, fructose and galactose

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