Methods of seed propagation.
1. SEXUAL and 2. ASEXUAL PROPAGATION OF SEED
1. Sexual or seed propagation
This method makes use of seeds. It is common with both se pollinated and cross-pollinated crops. It is sometimes the only possible way to propagate some crops like tomato, maize, rice, beans and groundnut.
Seeds can be collected from healthy, vigorous and high yielding plants. These are sown either directly on the farm or first in nursery before they are transplanted to the farm. Examples of crop that are propagated by seeds are maize, rice, tomato, okro, cocoa, palm, rubber, mango, cashew and guava.
Seed and fruit formation: The main reproductive organ flowering plants is the flower. The flower consists of two major parts – the male and the female parts. The stamen is the ‘ reproductive organ and it is made up of filaments carrying anthers which contain the pollen grains. The pistil is the female rcproductive organ. It consists of the stigma which receives the pollen grains during pollination; style which connects the stigma to the ovart through which the pollen tube grows during the process of fertilizers: and the ovary which contains the ovules which develop Into seeds.
After fertilization, a zygote is formed from the ovule. This develops to form an embryo. The ovule eventually develops into the seeds, while the ovary which contains the ovule develops into a fruit. Therefore, a fruit can be described as fully grown, fertilized ovary containing fully developed ovules the seeds.
Classification of fruits:
Fruits may be classified as simple, foot pound, and aggregate. Simple fruits are those formed from a flower with a monocarpous pistil. Examples are beans, lemon and mango. Compound/multiple fruits are formed from an inflorescence or bunch whose fruitlets are fused together to form a , jingle large fruits. Examples are pineapple and jack fruit. Aggregate joints are formed from a single flower with an apocarpous pistil, carpel constitutes a fruittet. An example is kolanut.
Again fruits can also be divided into two: fleshy and dry fruits.
(i) Fleshy or succulent fruits: This group includes:
1. Berry: This has a fleshy pericarp with hard seeds which are embedded in the fleshy and pulpy endocarp. Examples are tomato and guava.
2. Hesperiditrm: This class of fruit is made up of distinct chambers of separated sheets of endocarp. The epicarp and mesocarp are fused together to form the skin. Seeds are embedded in each chamber. Examples are orange, lemon, lime, tangerine.
3. Drupe: this consists of a thin epicarp. fleshy or fibrous mesoearp and a stony or hard endocarp surrounding the see Examples are mango, coconut and palm fruit.
4. Pome: This consists of an outer covering and a fleshy edible part which are formed by the swelling of the receptacle. Examples are pear and apple.
5. Sorosis: This is a fleshy multiple false fruit which develop from a dense inflorescence. Every part of each flower forms part of the fruit while the peduncle swells to form the core. Example
are pineapple and Jack fruit.
(ii) Dry fruits: These are fruits which have hard, dry pericarp. They include:
1. Legume: This has one carpel which can split along two edges. Examples are cowpea, groundnut.
2. Capsule: This has many joined carpels which split along all structures from base to the apex. Examples are okro, cotton.
3. Caryopsis: This is a simple dry one seeded fruit which does not split open (indehiscent). Examples are maize, guinea corn, millet and other cereals.
4. Nut: This has a hard pericarp which can be broken or cracked. Examples are cashew nut, walnut, almond.
Advantages of sexual or seed propagation
1. It is very easy to practice. That is seeds can be carried conveniently to the farm
2. It brings about easy multiplication of pfarrt population.
3. Well stored seeds can remain viable for a long time.
4. It is a sure way to start a disease free crop.
5. It can be used to improve crops through cross-breeding.
Disadvantages of sexual or seed propagation
1. Some crops take long time to mature and fruit when planted by seeds. Example is orange.
2. Some seeds are lost in the soil during propagation because of termites, rats and hare.
3. It is difficult to grow crops that are seedless with this method
Seed treatment before sowing:
1. Pre-soak the seeds. This is to allow some very hard secdi to absorb water that will aid germination.
2. Scarification is carried out to loosen the surface of the seeds for easy emergence of the radical and plmule.
3. Chemical dressing of seeds. This is done so that disease organisms do not affect the seeds. It is also to prevent pests from destroying the seeds.
2. Asexual or vegetative propagation
This involves the use of parts of plant in multiplying the plant, parts of plant such as roots, stem and leaves can be used instead of seeds. For example, the root can be used to grow breadfruit and potato. The leaf can be used to multiply the plant Bryophyllum. Crops such as cassava and sugar-cane can be grown from stem.
Methods of Asexual or Vegetative Propagation: There are several methods of asexual or vegetative propagation. These are:
1. Budding 4. Layering
2. Grafting 5. Marcotting
3. Cutting 6. Others.
Budding: This is the bringing together of the bud and stock. The bud is taken from a tree already producing or matured. This forms the bud stick or slip. The stock is a young plant of about a vear old.
During budding, a T-shaped cut or inverted T-shaped is made at about 45 cm from the ground on the stem of the stock plant. The cut shape is slightly raised to expose the cambium. The bud is carefully slipped into the raised bark and pressed firmly to ensure that the cambia of both bud and stock unite together.
It is tied with plastic material, or any device to hold it in place. This should be done quickly to prevent the bud from drying. Air and water should be prevented from the cut until the bud lias taken’ or heal together with the stock. This wtll show when the bud remains green. The bud then shoots after some days. When it becomes well established, the part of the stock above the bud should be cut-off. The cut surface should b’e to avoid fungal or bacterial infection. It is commonly used in citrus.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM
77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
115. MAMMARY GLAND
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM
PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION
127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
133. PROTEIN FATS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
153. FUNGAL DISEASES
154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES