MAJOR PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

      MAJOR PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA. Many developing countries in West Africa are faced with numerous problems which militate against the development of agriculture.

 Despite having about 60-75% of their labour force in agriculture, West Africa countries cannot meet their domestic food requirements. There has been a decline in the contribution of agriculture to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of many West African countries.

  • Identify the main components of agriculture
  • Explain the main features of various systems of agriculture 
  • Explain the importance of agricultural products to economic development using Nigeria as an example
  • Explain the process and challenges of marketing both livestock, food and cash crops in Nigeria

 Seventeen (17) reasons for  low agricultural productivity

  1. Land tenure system: The type of land tenure system in
    West African discourages farmers from acquiring the land for large scale farming
  2. Inadequate finance or credit facilities:  Majority of the farmers is too poor and do not have the finance to make purchase of land, tools, e.t.c. They do not have access to loan facilities from banks
  • Poor transportation system: The presence of bad roads or total lack of it makes distribution of products to markets very difficult and this leads to wastage. The non-availability of vehicles coupled cost of transporting farm produce makes things difficult for agriculture to develop
  • Inadequate storage facilities and processing facilities: Lots of produce are wasted due to lack of storage and processing facilities. The farmers do not have the technical know how to operate the storage and processing facilities, which are very expensive to purchase and maintain
  • Inadequate farm input: Farm input like chemicals fertilizers, improved seeds, tools and implements are not easily available and ,they are too expensive for the farmer to afford
  • Illiteracy of the farmer:  Majority of the farmers who are engaged in farming (over 60%)  are illiterate and as such they cannot make use of modern techniques in agriculture
  • Lack of basic amenities:  Lack of basic amenities like electricity, pipe-borne water and proper health care makes able-bodies men and women to migrate from rural to urban areas in search of non-existent jobs
  • Use of crude implements: The use of simple farm tools likes cutlass and hoe leads to low agricultural production. Majority of the farmers are so poor that they cannot afford to buy modern tools and equipment to improve their product
  • Unfavorable climate: Unpredictable and unfavorable climate like high temperature and low rainfall generally discourage serious farming activities
  • Lack of technical know how: Majority  of farmers lack the technical knowledge of modern farming as a result of their illiteracy and this militates against the increase in agricultural productivity
  1. Problems of pest and diseases: Pest and diseases are not controlled by majority of the farmers. Pests and diseases generally reduce the quality and income of the farmers
  2. Poor marketing system: There are no organized marketing channels for farm produce. There is also lack of proper pricing for agricultural produce.
  1. Rural-urban drift: The movement of able-bodies men and youth out of the rural areas to urban centres has worsened the development of agriculture. Agriculture is thus left to old men and women who cannot produce for the increasing population

  1. Inconsistent government policies:  Inconsistent government policies on agriculture reduce agricultural development. The policies at times fail to recognize the rural farmers that produce food for the country. Most of the policies are centered around fake city farmers who only collect money from the government and use them for other purposes
  2. Natural disasters: Natural disasters like flood, drought, etc may occur and this will reduce agricultural productivity
  3. Lack of research: Most farmers do not have access to research work and this leads t o low agricultural development
  1. Political/social instability: Political/social instability in the country affects agricultural activities as farmlands are usually destroyed during communal clashes. This leads to low agricultural productivity.

  1.     economic tools for nation building
  2. budgeting
  3. factors affecting the expansion of industries
  4. mineral resources and the mining industries
  5. demand and supply
  6. types of demand curve and used
  7. advertising industry
  8. factors of production
  9. entrepreneur
  10. joint stock company
  11. public enterprises
  12. private enterprises
  13. limited liability companies
  14. migration
  15. population
  16. market concept
  17. money market
  18. shares
  19. how companies raises funds for expansion
  20.  

WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

  1. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
    19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
    20. INCUBATORS
    21. MILKING MACHINE
    22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
    23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
    24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
    25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
    26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
    27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
    28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
    29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
    30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
    31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
    32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
    33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
    34. OIL PALM
    35. USES OF PALM OIL
    36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
    37. COCOA
    38.
    39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
    HOLING AND LINING
    40. YAM
    41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
    42. DEPT OF PLANTING
    43. SPACING OF YAM
    44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
    45. STORAGE OF YAM
    46. STAKING OF YAM
    47. HARVESTING OF YAM
    48. COWPEA
    JUTE
    49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
    50. FORAGE GRASSES
    51. SILAGE
    52. PASTURE
    53. TYPES OF PASTURE
    COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
    54. GRASSES
    55. LEGUMES
    56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
    57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
    58. HAY SILAGE
    59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
    60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
    61. MAIZE SMUT
    62. RICE BLAST
    63. MAIZE RUST
    64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
    65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
    66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE

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