approach to taxation. HOW TO **APPROACH TO TAXATION MATHEMATICALLY**, Certainty calculations are done in taxation and for proper understanding of it, it is very important to take note of the following terms; how to approach to taxation mathematically

**Tax base:**The tax base refers to the item or the object which is taxed. This includes personal income, import and exports, company profits, properties and goods for sale.

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**Tax rate:**to approach to taxation, Tax rate refers to the percentage (or proportion) of tax base or tax object which is to be paid as tax, e.g. 10% of income. And ad valorem tax, for instance, is expressed as a percentage. On the other hand, it could be a flat rate of tax, e.g. 100 per adult male.

Tax rate has a formula;

Tax rate= Tax Payment 100

Tax base 1

**Disposable income:**This is the type of income derived after tax has been deducted from gross income. In other words, disposable or net income is total income less tax.

Disposable income = Income – Taxation Or tax base – tax paid

**Worked Example** of approach to taxation

economic tools for nation building

factors affecting the expansion of industries

mineral resources and the mining industries

The table below shows the tax payments of three income earners in a year. Use the Information in the table to answer the questions that follows:

Income Earners | Income Base | Tax paymentsX( |

Mr. Okafor Alhaji Tanko Mr. Kolawole | 10,000 15,000 30,000 | 1,000 800 1,500 1,300 3,000 1,500 |

Determine the percentage rate of taxation paid by

- Mr Okafor in column X and Y
- Kolawole in column X and Y
- Alhaji Tanko in column Y

(b). i. Identify the systems of taxation employed in columns X and Y

ii. Which of the income earners has the least burden under column Y?

- i. if the government increases its rate of taxation to 20% flat rate, how much revenue will be generated from the payees?

ii. At 20% flat rate of taxation, calculate the disposable income of Mr. Okafor, Alhaji Tanko and Mr. Kolawole.

Solution to approach to taxation

- Tax rate = Tax payment x 100

Tax base 1

- For Mr. Okafor

= 1,000 x 100

10,000 1

= 10% for X

= 800 x 100

1

10,000

= 8% for Y

- For Mr. Kolawole

= 3,000 x 100

30,000 1

= 10% for X

= 1,500 x 100

30,000 1

= 5% for Y

(b)(i) The systems of taxation employed in column X and Y are:

Column X = Proportional systems of taxation

Column Y = Regressive system of taxation

(ii) The person with the last burden is M. Kolawole with 5% tax rate.

(c) (i) Mr. Okafor = 20 x 10,000 = N2,000.00

100 1

Alhaji Tanko = 20 x 15,000 = N3,000.00

100 1

Mr. Kolawole 20 x 30,000 = N6,000.00

100 1

Total revenue = N2,000 + 63,000 + N6,000

= N11,000

OR

20% of total income

=20 x (N10,000 + N15,000 + N30,000)

100 1

= Disposable Income = Income – Taxation or Tax base – Tax Paid

Mr. Okafor = 10,000 – N2, 000 = N8, 000

Alhaji Tanko = 15,000 – 3,000 = N12, 000

Mr. Kolawole = 30,000 – 6,000 = N24,000

WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES

1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

2. DISEASES

3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS

4. ORGANIC MANURING

5. FARM YARD MANURE

6. HUMUS

7. COMPOST

8. CROP ROTATION

9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING

10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE

11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

12. ORGANIC MANURING

13. FARM YARD MANURE

14. HUMUS

15. COMPOST

16. CROP ROTATION