Categories
topical index posts

HOW TO CULTIVATE CASSAVA (MANIHOT SPP)

WHAT IS CASSAVA(Manihot spp). Cassava just like yam, is a root and tuber crop. It has underground roots which can be consumed by man and livestock animals after processing.

ggfertilizers application on cassava farm

It has other advantages over yam, in that it can grow in relatively poor soil and in low rainfall area. The root is also rich in carbohydrates.

The tubers (root tubers, tuberous roots, storage roots) are true roots modified to function only as storage organs that cannot absorb
water or plant nutrients from the soil and cannot be used for vegetative propagation or as planting material.
The older root tubers become lignified.
The mature cassava storage root has 3 distinct tissues:

Land Preparation of Cassava

The bush is cleared with cutlass. Stumping is done and hoe could be used to make heaps or ridges. Ploughing, harrowing and ridging can also be done mechanically.

Varieties/Cultivars of Cassava

There exist two main varieties: sweet cassava (Manihot palmata) and bitter cassava (Manihot utilissima). The latter contains some poisonous hydrocyanic acid in its root.

Climatic and soil requirement for cassava cultivation

Cassava requires a temperature of 21C – 35C, rainfall of 150cm – 200cm, a well-drained, rich, friable,loamy soil. It can also grow m poor soil. A good size for a cassava garden is 10 m long and 2 m wide, with 32 cassava plants, 60 × 120 cm apart.

The ground should be dug well twice.
Double digging is needed to make the soil soft and to kill the weeds.
Ask a field officer of the Ministry of Agriculture to recommend a suitable variety for the cassava project.

A light sandy soil best with good drainage but almost any soil type can be used except salty or waterlogged soils.
Good yields can be obtained on heavily cropped soils so cassava is suitable as the last crop in crop rotation.

economic tools for nation building

During drought cassava stops growing and drops its leaves but it usually recovers well after new rain.
Cassava is a shrub to about 1-3m, thin stems, large palm-shaped leaves, with high yield of tuberous roots, the main part that is eaten,
but also leaves as edible vegetables. A most productive use of subsistence land, but all cassava is poisonous containing hydrocyanic acid, with the more toxic varieties
However, thorough cooking denatures the harmful toxins to make it safe to eat.

Method of Cassava propagation :

By stem cuttings which are planted from March to September.

Planting date for cassava:

Cassava sticks or cuttings are planted from March to September.
Planting date: Cassava sticks or cuttings are planted from March to September

types of cassava

how to Space cassava:

Cassava is spaced 1m by 1m

Planting methods for cassava :

A stem cutting of 25 – 30cm long is pushed into the ridge or heap slanty at an angle of45°and C of it buried. Sprouting occurs 7- 14 days later.

Cultural Practices in cassava cultivation

(i) Weeding: This is done regularly
(ii) Fertilizer Application: Apply 250kg/ha of NPK. Fertilizer four to six weeks after planning.

Classification of Cassava plant

Cassava is a perennial, but cultivated as an annual crop, woody shrub with latex in all parts, 1 to 6 m in height.
Many varieties and cultivars exist but most are cultigens, i.e. known only as cultivated forms.

The bitter and sweet varieties of cassavas were formerly separate species, Manihot esculenta the bitter cassava and Manihot
palmata the sweet cassava.

However, the bitterness depends on many factors including soil, climate and location so now cassavas are informally divided into bitter
and sweet types and sometimes into short season and long season cultivars.

Also, cassava formerly had the scientific name Manihot utilissima.
Nowadays all varieties and cultivars of cassava have the same scientific name, Manihot esculenta..

Maturity Period of cassava :

This occurs between 8 – 15 months depending on varieties/

Cassava Harvesting process:

Use cutlass to remove some soil and pull the stem gently so that the tubers are pulled along or, use cassava puller.

Cassava Processing :

Cassava is processed into garri, foo foo, flour or livestock feed.
Storage: Cassava is stored in processed form in sack as garri (cassava flour or foo foo).

importance of cassava

Cassava is an important source of starchy food in tropical regions.
Its cultivation needs little labour input so it is cheap to produce.
Cassava is a benchmark for food security because it is affordable by the poor.

Pest of Cassava and control methods

(1) Variegated Grasshopper: Adults and nymphs eat up the leaves and young and eat up the tubers.
Control:
(i) Trapping
(ii) Shooting with gun
(iii) Wire fencing round the farm

origin of cassava

Cassava has the scientific name, Manihot esculenta and is in the Family Euphorbiaceae, the spruce family, which includes natural rubber
(Hevea brasiliensis) castor oil (Ricinus comunis) and ornamentals, e.g. poinsettia (Euphorbia sp.).
Latex occurs in all parts of the plant and a related species Manihot glaziovii was formerly used in commercial rubber plantations to make rubber.
Most varieties of cassava are diploid with 2n chromosome number = 36.

Diseases of Cassava and control methods

(1)

Cassava mosaic disease :

It is caused by virus which is transmitted by a piercing and sucking insect (white flies).
Symptoms
Symptoms include vein clearing and distortion of the leaves and stunted plants
Control
(i) Grow resistant varieties
(ii) Uproot and burn infected plants
(iii) Use disease free planting materials
(iv)

Bacteria blight of cassava :

It is caused by bacteria which are transmitted by infected cuttings.
Symptoms
These include angular, water- soaked area of discoloured leaf tissue, blighting, wilting and reduction in yield.
Control:
(i) Use resistant varieties
(ii) Use lean and disease-free stem cuttings

(2)

Angular leaf spot of cassava:

It is caused by a fungus.

Symptoms: include spores which produce pale, brownish colour on affected leaves.
Control:
(i) Spray with fungicide, e.g. Bordeaux mixture.

  1. economic tools for nation building
  2. budgeting
  3. factors affecting the expansion of industries
  4. mineral resources and the mining industries
  5. demand and supply
  6. types of demand curve and used
  7. advertising industry
  8. factors of production
  9. entrepreneur
  10. joint stock company
  11. public enterprises
  12. private enterprises
  13. limited liability companies
  14. migration
  15. population
  16. market concept
  17. money market
  18. shares
  19. how companies raises funds for expansion

WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

  1. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
    19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
    20. INCUBATORS
    21. MILKING MACHINE
    22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
    23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
    24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
    25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
    26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
    27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
    28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
    29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
    30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
    31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
    32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
    33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
    34. OIL PALM
    35. USES OF PALM OIL
    36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
    37. COCOA

38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE

fertilizers and manures application on a cassava farm

check out these recent posts

  1. loans for businesses
  2. how to establish enterprises
  3. what is a firm
  4. price equilibrium
  5. scale of preference
  6. concept of economics
  7. economic tools for nation building
  8. budgeting
  9. factors affecting the expansion of industries
  10. mineral resources and the mining industries
  11. demand and supply
  12. types of demand curve and used
  13. advertising industry
  14. factors of production
  15. entrepreneur
  16. joint stock company
  17. public enterprises
  18. private enterprises
  19. limited liability companies
  20. migration
  21. population
  22. market concept
  23. money market
  24. shares
  25. how companies raises funds for expansion
  1. BALANCED DIETS
    141. LACTATION DIETS
    142. MALNUTRITION
  2. RINDER PESTS
    148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
    149. BACTERIA DISEASES
    150. ANTHRAX
    151. BRUCELLOSIS
    152. TUBERCULOSIS
    153. FUNGAL DISEASES
  3. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
    155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS

    159. TAPE WORM
    160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
    161. LIVER FLUKE
    162. ECTO PARASITES
    163. TICK

Related Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.